Simulated by using Ansoft HFSS software. Fig 1 shows the single microstrip patch antenna.
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Directivity is a fundamental antenna parameter. It is a measure of how 'directional' an antenna's radiation pattern is. An antenna that radiates equally in all directions would have effectively zero directionality, and the directivity of this type of antenna would be 1 (or 0 dB).
He has received his PhD from Jamia Milia Islamic University, New Delhi. His research is in the field of pattern recognition techniques used in sensors. Currently he is working as Asst.
In present work, a novel miniaturized design of a multi frequency rectangular microstrip patch antenna is designed and simulation results are presented in this paper with broadband behavior for WLAN and HYPERLAN and SATELLITE applications is proposed. The proposed antenna has Multi frequency bandwidth of about 385 MHz (3/282-3/672GHz), 517MHz (5/1145/631GHz) and 1111 MHz (5/917-7/028GHz) at -10 dB return loss which is sufficient to make the antenna useful for WLAN/ HIPERLAN/ SATELLITE operation. The maximum achievable gain over the entire frequency band is close to 5 dBi. The resonance frequencies can be controlled by adjusting the dimensions of the ground plane. The proposed antenna uses a pi-shaped slot made into the ground. The key parameters like return loss, input impedance, gain are simulated, analyzed and optimized using High Frequency structure Simulator (HFSS (check here)) v11. The results show that the preference of the proposed antenna can be greatly improved compared to traditional microstrip patch antennas.
We'll wrap up with a table of frequency bands along with the corresponding wavelengths. From the table, we see that VHF is in the range 30-300 MHz (30 Million-300 Million cycles per second). At the very least then, if someone says they need a "VHF antenna", you should now understand that the antenna should transmit or receive electromagnetic waves that have a frequency of 30-300 MHz.
In its most fundamental form, a Microstrip Patch antenna consists of a radiatingpatch on one side of a dielectric substrate which has a ground plane on the other side asshown in Figure below The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any possible shape. The radiating patch and the feed lines are usually photo etched on the dielectric substrate.
Microstrip patch antenna using hfss
Micro strip antennas have limitations of low bandwidth and low gain. The bandwidth of the micro-strip patch antenna can be increased by using U-shaped slots or stacked patch (see this site) configuration. This paper shows the configuration of proposed microstrip array antenna. It is composed of three radiating patches, one is transformer fed and the other two patch elements are fed by inset feeding. As the magnitude of current is small at the ends of a radiating patch (click this site) and it rises in magnitude toward the centre of the patch, the input impedance of the patch could be reduced if the patch is fed closer to the centre.
If a transmission line propagating energy is left open at the end, there will be radiating from this end. In case of a rectangular waveguide this antenna presents a mismatch of about 2:1 and it radiates in many directions. The match will improve if the open waveguide is horn shape.
Antennas play a very important role in the field of wireless communication system. Some of the antennas are parabolic reflector antennas, micro-strip patch antennas, slot antennas, and folded dipole antennas and each type having their own properties and use. It is perfect to categorize antennas as the backbone and the driving force behind the latest advances in wireless communication technology. Microstrip antennas have found applications mainly in the field of medical, military, mobile and satellite communications. Their usage has become diverse because of their small size and light weight. Fast and cost effective fabrication is especially essential when it comes to the prototyping of antennas for their performance estimation.
A microstrip patch is one of the most widely used radiators for circular polarization. Figure 3/1shows some patches, including square, circular, pentagonal, equilateral triangular, ring, and elliptical shapes which are capable of circular polarization operation. However square and circular patches are widely utilized in practice. A single patch antenna can be made to radiate circular polarization if two orthogonal patch modes are simultaneously excited with equal amplitude and out of phase with sign determining the sense of rotation. Two types of feeding schemes can accomplish the task as given in figure 3/2. The first type is a dual-orthogonal feed, which employs an external power divider network. The other is a single point for which an external power divider is not required.
Intelligent transportation system is being made possible by properly selecting reliable antennas. It enhances driver safety and traffic efficiency if the selected antenna properly operates at 5/9 GHz band. Dedicated Short Range Communication Systems (DSRC) guarantees high data rate in the Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communications. Proper antenna selection acquaints high system performance. Directional antennas are demanded for vehicular communication to support different wireless operating environments. This work deals with the design of low profile hexagonal shaped microstrip antennas suited for Vehicular communication. Shorting pins and two sets of v shaped slots are provided to achieve broadband performance. The proposed antenna is designed using ANSYS HFSS software and its performance measures such as return loss, and radiation pattern are analyzed. The subsequent section reveals the design formulae and steps in HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) for the proposed antenna.
The group at the University of Massachusetts (Dan Schaubert, Bob Jackson, Sigfrid Yngvesson) had received an Air Force contract to study this problem, in terms of design tradeoffs for various integrated phased array architectures, as well as theoretical modeling of large printed phased array antennas. The straightforward approach of building an integrated millimeter wave array (or subarray) using a single GaAs substrate layer had several drawbacks. First, there is generally not enough space on a single layer to hold antenna elements, active phase shifter and amplifier circuitry, bias lines, and RF feed lines. Second, the high permittivity of a semiconductor substrate such as GaAs was a poor choice for antenna bandwidth, since the bandwidth of a microstrip antenna is best for low dielectric constant substrates. And if substrate thickness is increased in an attempt to improve bandwidth, spurious feed radiation increases and surface wave power increases. This latter problem ultimately leads to scan blindness, whereby the antenna is unable to receive or transmit at a particular scan angle. Because of these and other issues, they were looking at the use of a variety of two or more layered substrates. One obvious possibility was to use two back to-back substrates with feed through pins. This would allow plenty of surface area, and had the critical advantage of allowing the use of GaAs (or similar) material for one substrate, with a low dielectric constant for the antenna elements. The main problem with this approach was that the large number of via holes presented fabrication problems in terms of yield and reliability.
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With a size reduction at a fixed operating frequency, the impedance bandwidth of a microstrip antenna is usually decreased. To obtain an enhanced impedance bandwidth, one can simply increase the antenna’s substrate thickness to compensate for the decreased electrical thickness of the substrate due to the lowered operating frequency, or one can use a meandering ground plane (Figure 1/7) or a slotted ground plane (Figure 1/8). These design methods lower the quality factor of compact microstrip antennas and result in an enhanced impedance bandwidth.
SUMMER TRAINING WORK ON ANTENNA DESIGN & VHDL Submitted By Vipin Yadav 2K13-MRCE-MT-ECE-015
A microstrip antenna is a resonator type antenna. It is usually designed for single mode operation that radiates mainly linear polarization. For a circular polarization radiation, a patch must support orthogonal fields of equal magnitude but in-phase quadrature. This requirement can be accomplished by single patch with proper excitations or by an array of patches with an appropriate arrangement and phasing.
Compact microstrip antennas with dual-frequency operation have attracted much attention. The two operating frequencies can have the same polarization planes or orthogonal polarization planes.
As an example, cell phones that use the PCS (Personal Communications Service) band have their signals shifted to 1850-1900 MHz. Television is broadcast primarily at 54-216 MHz. FM radio operates between 87/5-108 MHz.
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In this type of feed technique, a conducting strip is connected directly to the edge of the Microstrip patch as shown in Figure 2/3. The conducting strip is smaller in width as compared to the patch and this kind of feed arrangement has the advantage that the feed can be etched on the same substrate to provide a planar structure.
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The first aperture coupled microstrip antenna was fabricated and tested by a graduate student, Allen Buck, on August 1, 1984, in the University of Massachusetts Antenna Lab. This antenna used 0/062” Duroid substrates with a circular coupling aperture, and operated at 2 GHz. As is the case with most original antenna developments, the prototype element was designed without any rigorous analysis or CAD - only an intuitive view of how the fields might possibly couple through a small aperture. They were pleasantly surprised to find that this first prototype worked almost perfectly – it was impedance matched, and the radiation patterns were good. Most importantly, the required coupling aperture was small enough so that the back radiation from the coupling aperture was much smaller than the forward radiation level.
Applications due to their low-profile structure. Therefore they are extremely compatible for embedded antennas (important source) in handheld wireless devices such as cellular phones, pagers etc. The telemetry and communication antennas (get redirected here) on missiles need to be thin and conformal and are often in the form of Microstrip patch antennas (sites). Another area where they have been used successfully is in Satellite communication.
Prerequisites Audience: The course is intended for graduate and senior-level undergraduate students interested in antenna modeling and hardware. Enrollment is limited to 25 students. Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of electromagnetic theory (ECE 2112, ECE 3113), and differential and integral calculus.
The answer goes back to the fundamental secret of the universe. No matter what information you want to send, that waveform can be represented as the sum of a range of frequencies. By the use of modulation (which in a nutshell shifts the frequency range of the waveform to be sent to a higher frequency band), the waveforms can be relocated to separate frequency bands.
Microstrip antennas are attractive due to their light weight, conformability and lowcost. These antennas can be integrated with printed strip-line feed networks and active devices. This is a relatively new area of antenna engineering. The radiation properties of micro strip structures have been known since the mid 1950’s. The application of this type of antennas started in early 1970’s when conformal antennas were required for missiles. Rectangular and circular micro strip resonant patches have been used extensively in a variety of array configurations. A major contributing factor for recent advances of microstrip antennas is the current revolution in electronic circuit miniaturization brought about by developments in large scale integration. As conventional antennas are often bulky and costly part of an electronic system, micro strip antennas based on photolithographic technology are seen as an engineering breakthrough.
The radiation pattern is used to represent the radiation properties of antenna as a function of space coordinates. Fig 6 shows the radiation pattern of array antenna.
The small and compact antennas usage is increasing day by day due to its several advantages and advancements in the electronic systems. Cost is also one of the main considerations in making these types of antennas (https://yamamotonight-m.ru/hack/?patch=6126). The patch antennas are one of the most attractive antennas for integrated RF front end systems. A design of microstrip circular patch array antenna on liquid crystal polymer substrate with optimum performance at Bluetooth/WLAN-2/4 applications is investigated. The proposed antenna is simulated using Ansoft-HFSS (https://yamamotonight-m.ru/content/uploads/files/download/microstrip-patch-antenna-using-hfss-ppt.zip) software and all the output parameters are presented in this paper.
A microstrip fractal antenna (click for more info) has been introduced in the following paper. The iterations of hexagons are placed over one another in such a way that they do not overlap and each and every hexagon is clearly visible. The presented antenna (weblink) has been fed with 50 probe. The antenna operates at a frequency of 0/6 GHz giving the input return loss of about -13/5 dB. The performance of the antenna has been evaluated using HFSS (https://yamamotonight-m.ru/hack/?patch=6139), V12, from Ansoft. The resulting antenna has a ground plane side each of 7cm.
In this paper, the design of series-fed microstrip patch antenna (try this out) array for communication system applications is presented. This antenna (https://yamamotonight-m.ru/hack/?patch=83) is designed on FR-4 substrate and its performance characteristics which include Return Loss and gain are obtained from the simulation. Three element array is designed in which basic element is transformer fed and the other two elements are inset-fed. In order to improve the performance of the array antenna open circuited stubs are also used (browse around this site) on the transmission line.