Animating Quadrupeds in Maya: In this series of tutorials we will learn how to animate a run cycle for a quadruped-type creature. We’ll start by learning how to set our animation preferences. We’ll then have a look at references we can use to guide us in achieving realism throughout the animation. After this, we’ll begin our blocking pass, and from there, we’ll move to refining our work with time-saving techniques. Once we’ve completed the cycle, we’ll then learn how to translate it forward. By the end of this training, you’ll have the skill-set to animate your own quadrupeds in Maya.

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Animating Quadrupeds: Methods and Applications

This direct version was primarily designed as a tool for post-viz, since the final animation was heavily hand crafted to produce refined comic timing and general animation for the final version. Korg’s face was rigged with a standard Framestore rig, but it was done without any ‘flesh’ or rock simulations. The cool thing about Korg is that all his face was deformer driven”, comments Johansson, “it was all deformer and node based, which we are quite proud of”. The team tried tests with a simulation layer on the rocks, but in the end the team “opted for what was coming out of the rig. We gave the animators the full set up – it was fast enough for it to be in an animation rig so that what the animators saw was what they got when they were animating his face”. The entire rock ‘skin’ over all over Korg’s body was driven by this node approach and not simulated.


Balance Basic to composition is balance. If a picture is out of balance, it will feel uncomfortable to the viewer. In Figure 3/20 the character is way off to the left. It creates a large, uncomfortable empty area in the middle and right side of the picture. Figure 3/20 The picture is off balance.

In Figure 3/11 I have added a character to our scene. She is the Victoria model wearing some appropriate clothing for the setting. The composition of the scene isn’t bad from the default position but it is rather flat. Figure 3/11 The default position leaves the final picture flat.


Creating Procedural Animation for an Insect in Maya

The tools on the left arranged vertically are activated when you position the cursor over the tool and click and hold down the left or right mouse button. Hovering over the tool will bring up a tool tip window. When you move the mouse, the tool will take effect. For example, in Figure 2/14, I used the Pan tool to raise the scene so that the volleyball is visible. The tools along the top are actually drop-down menus that let you select options. Figure 2/15 shows the View Selection drop down menu.

Motion frequency determines the overall speed of motion and can be altered during runtime to affect the behavior of animation dynamically. The Bp parameter determines the position of the body from ground whereas Bocs controls the oscillation of body.


Inside a 3D Model 3D models are made up of a mesh of simple geometric shapes combined to form a very complex object. It is a little like a cut diamond for a piece of jewelry. The diamond has many facets or flat planes that form its shape yet as a whole the diamond can be almost any shape the jeweler desires. A 3D model uses the same concept of combining many flat shapes to create a more complex shape. On a 3D model, these individual flat shapes are called polygons. The basic unit of a 3D model is the polygon. A polygon is a simple flat plane with three or more sides, as shown in Figure 1/2. The point on the corner of a polygon is called a vertex or vertices for plural. The vertex is the mathematical point in space that a computer software program calculates.

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Let’s assume that Victoria is done playing volleyball and is ready to go home. She has a top and pants that she brought along to wear over her volleyball outfit. In Figure 5/3, I have added her top to the scene by first selecting Victoria from the scene list and then dragging the top icon in the Content tab over the model. As you can see, the top comes in already fit to Victoria. Select the top in the scene list and look at its parameters. If you look under Misc in the Parameters tab toward the bottom of the list, you will see an item titled Fit to. In the box below it reads Victoria 4/2 Figure 5/3 Victoria’s top is added to the scene.


With the above list in mind, let’s get started animating

The Scene tab contains everything that is within a scene. A quick look at the list in the Scene pane will show you what you have to work with. For example, in this first scene you will notice that there are seven lights, five spot lights, and two other lights. Each of these lights helps to make the scene look and feel right. In Figure 2/11, I deleted one of the lights. Notice the difference (as compared to Figure 2/10) one light can make to a scene. Figure 2/11 The scene with one light missing.

Sendilkumar began with an introduction to Festo. He spoke of Festo's various products, achievements and role in the international automation sector. He also introduced the various advantages and the use of pneumatics over other systems of power transmission in industrial automation. The students were familiarized with the reasons, why pneumatics is preferred in industries over electrical and hydraulic driven systems? Mr. Sendilkumar proceeded to expound upon the various components used in pneumatic systems. He ended the session with an introduction to the electro-pneumatic simulation software, FluidSIM, which would be a helpful tool for students of electro-pneumatics and would be essential once they enter the automation industry.


Baja is an international race organised by SAEINDIA and Mahindra & Mahindra in India where teams from different universities all over the world design and build small off-road cars. The virtual presentation round is the first round of the competition, where students have to make a formal presentation on their ATV design and fabrication. This year the virtual was held at Chitkara University, Chandigarh on 13th and 14th July. Five members team consisting of K V Sai Krishna (7S ME), Rayudu (7S ME), Manne Uday (5S ME), Arun Kalmadi (5S ME) and Ashika (5S ME) represented the team AMEYA in the virtual round.

When you open the Base tab, you will notice a very extensive list of Morphs. Unlike the Male Morphs we looked at earlier, you will notice that these Morphs do not start all the way on the right of the scale. They are lined up in a variety of places. Their alignment is what gives Victoria her specific default look or 0/0% position. Sometimes the 0/0% is halfway through the slider bar scale and sometimes it isn’t, as shown in Figure 6/6. Figure 6/6 Slider positions vary in the Base Morphs.


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Every figure in life has some weight unless it is floating in outer space. Weight is closely related to balance in that without weight, balance is not an issue. A character’s weight is a combination of mass and gravity. Gravity is constantly pulling on a figure toward the ground. The figure’s skeletal and muscular systems work together to help the figure to stand, move, and, in essence, fight the effects of gravity. When working with a virtual figure in a virtual setting, you will find that the model will often seem to not have any weight. This can be a problem if you are working toward a realistic picture. When posing a figure, you have to take weight into account. Figure 7/19 shows a figure in the act of lifting an object. There is a sense of weight to both the figure and the object.

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Multiple Lights Many times, objects we see in life have more than one light source. This is particularly true of characters or objects that are in interior settings. A single room inside a building might have many lights illuminating a character or object from multiple angles. Each light will have an effect on how the character or object looks. This can often be confusing for the artist who has to track the direction of the lights to understand the angles of the lights. Figure 12/3 shows the ball with three lights. Notice the multiple cast shadows.

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Figure 10/19 shows a rendering of the enlarged terrain in the scene. Figure 10/19 The new terrain is rendered in the scene.

Badler and D. Metaxas, 1995. Autonomous Animation and Control of Four-Legged Animals. University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, USA.


Pose Sets In addition to posing a character yourself, there are a number of pose sets available from the DAZ store. These pose sets contain many common poses that can be used right away. Figure 7/10 shows a number of poses from the General Poses pack. Using a readymade pose is very easy. All you have to do is find the pose you want to use in the content folder and then import it into the scene with the target model selected.

However I was unable to resize the imported character in Maya

The orthogonal views of the scene are isometric, meaning that there is no reduction in size like we would associate with how we see things in real life. The orthogonal views are more like drafting views used in product design or architectural drawings. They are useful in setting up scenes but are not generally used for finished renders. Because of the isometric nature of the orthogonal views, you should also notice that some of the tools in the toolbox are grayed out. This is because rotating or pivoting the camera will take the view out of its orthogonal position.


The Scale tool is very seldom used in posing. It is more of a character set-up tool. In fact, the Scale tool will only appear when the base model is selected. Selecting the bones has no effect. In real life, our arms and legs don’t suddenly get longer or shorter, so there is really little need for that to happen when posing a model. Figure 7/8 shows the model scaled smaller. The Scale tool can scale in all three axes or it can scale in one at a time. This is useful in a case where you want the figure to be a dwarf character, as shown in Figure 7/9.

Parts of the Figure Now that you understand how to select body parts, it is time to look at the different moving parts of a figure. The human figure is an extremely flexible and complex system. One look at a gymnastics meet and there should be no question about the range of movement possible with the human figure. In order to simulate the incredible range of motion of the human figure, DAZ characters need to have the same freedom of movement. Therefore, DAZ character models are divided into parts very similar to our own human skeletons. These parts are connected together by a system of, you guessed it, bones. That is why the little icon next to the hip in the list looks like a small bone. All of the bones of a model are joined together to form a skeleton. While the skeletal structure of Victoria isn’t exactly like our own skeletons, it is very similar, allowing the artist to move her limbs about in the same way we move ours. For example, in Figure 4/6 I used Power Pose to open Victoria’s stance simply by dragging the mouse to the right with the left mouse button pressed.


Working of Air Bagswas explained in a detailed way. In the second part, students were given a brain teaser question. Then a brain teaser question was posed and students were asked to find the answers before next session. Participants showed their enthusiasm by attending the event in large numbers consistently.

Surfaces Every model in DAZ Studio will have surface qualities or attributes. Just like in real life, surfaces have qualities. For example, you can tell the difference between a shiny metal car and a wooden fence just by the surface properties. The car’s surface is smooth and reflective, while the wooden fence has a rough surface. DAZ Studio gives you some control over the surfaces in your scenes in its Surface tab found in View > Tabs > Surfaces, as shown in Figure 5/7.


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Introduction Unlocking the 3D Artist in You In its basic sense, art has always been about depicting the artist’s vision in tangible form. Whether it’s the early cave drawings depicting a hunt, Michelangelo’s masterwork of the creation of man on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, or the latest special effects for a science-fiction movie, all were the result of an artist bringing his vision forward in a way that can be shared with others. In the past, those who wanted to be artists had to spend years, if not a lifetime, developing skills in painting, sculpture, or some other media to express his artistic vision. While these skills will always be important to the artist, they have limited the creation of great artwork to those who were able to master them, limiting artistic expression to the mechanical ability of the artist. A new wave of computer graphics tools like DAZ Studio is starting to break the barriers restraining the artist and open the path to amazing artwork even for those with limited painting or drawing skills. It is important that I state here that learning to draw is an important skill for any artist and the benefits of good drawing skills will be worth every hour the artist spends developing them. The benefits of learning to draw go well beyond just learning how to create beautiful drawings. Learning to draw is a process of learning to see, and learning to see is essential in developing artistic vision. Artistic vision enables the artist to see life, the world, and himself in a way that transcends how most other people perceive these things. If you would like to know more about the benefits of drawing, I suggest you look at one of my other books, Everyone Should Draw, which covers this subject in detail.


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Motion modeling for on-line locomotion synthesis. Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, July 29-31, 2005, Los Angeles, CA, USA, pp: 29-31.

The 3D artist may create a small part of a set like a historic building that no longer exists, or an entire set. Set artists specialize in the creation of interesting and sometimes spectacular settings for movies.


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Rajeevlochana G. Chittawadigi was invited to attend 11th International collaboration Symposium on Information, Production and Systems (ISIPS 2021) at Graduate School of Information, Production and Systems, Waseda University, Kitakyushu Campus, Fukuoka, Japan on Nov 14-16, 2021. His paper/presentation on “Virtual Experimentation of Trajectory Planning of Serial Robots using RoboAnalyzer” was awarded Excellent Paper Award in ISIPS2017. He extended his stay till Nov 25, 2021 to work on a collaborative project with Prof. T. Matsumaru in the same institute.

No. Student Name Host and Institute 1 Mrinalkanti Roy (S4 ME A) Prof. Subir K. Saha, IIT Delhi 2 Romit Dasari (S4 ME A) Prof.


Veeresh Kumar G B, reviewed 15 technical papers for "International Conference on Mechanical, Civil, Electronics and Communication and Computer Science Engineering" held on 23rd April 2021 organized by Bangalore Technological Institute, Kodathi, Off Bangalore-Sarjapur Road, Bangalore East Taluk, and Karnataka, India. He chairedtwo technical sessions in the conference. He also delivered a Key notelecture on “Research Methodology for Beginners”.

CGArchives Animating Quadrupeds in Maya Comments Feed

Learn techniques for rigging mechanical objects, machines, and other inanimate objects in Maya. George Maestri shows how to rig complex objects such as piston engines, cams, rocker arms, gears, and pulleys, and combine them all into a mechanized conveyor belt. These Maya tutorials are perfect for animators (explanation) who want to rig mechanical interactions, vehicles, and robots—any objects other than organic bipeds and quadrupeds.


To understand how to draw something, we first have to understand what we are drawing. This understanding begins with observing. Professional artists often spend as much time observing and collecting references as they do drawing. They do this for two main reasons: accuracy and inspiration. While an artist may with time and practice gain mastery over a subject matter allowing for a decent depiction from the artist’s imagination, rarely will the artist be able to draw from imagination with the accuracy they could have, if they had reference to draw from. Often inspiration for an artist comes through closely observing something from nature.

Fear Fear is usually an emotional state. It may begin with a scare but continue with the character showing traits like shaking or other tentative actions. When a character is scared, he tends to show reluctance in his movements. He will close in on himself, holding arms and legs close to his body. In severe cases, the character will turn and flee from the object of his fear. We show fear in a number of ways, and there is no specific action that is universally thought of as a fearful pose. The following example is just one way to show a fearful emotion. Once you have completed this exercise, try creating a few variations.


We have compared DAZ Studio to a photography studio, so it should seem natural for it to have some cameras lying around. Simply put, a camera in DAZ studio is a view of your scene. Think of it as if you were holding a real camera looking at the scene. If you want to see the scene from another angle, you move to a different place and then look at the scene through your camera there. Cameras in DAZ Studio work in a similar way to real cameras, except that in a virtual 3D world they are much more flexible. DAZ Studio can have as many cameras as you want. In fact, there are a number of cameras in DAZ Studio already set up and ready to use. The predetermined cameras are called views. You can look through any of the preset views by changing your view selection. The View Selection menu is part of the Viewport Toolbar, as we already discovered in Chapter 2. Figure 3/1 shows the default menu.

Shape and Pose Space Deformation for Subject Specific Animation

Action Focus Action and movement are very strong attention devices that are often used in motion pictures, video games, and the Internet. Because pictures don’t generally move, the application of action as a focal point is somewhat difficult. Instead of having something move in the picture, the artist has to imply movement. Implied movement is movement that is about to happen, such as when you capture a dynamic moment during a dramatic action. Figure 3/30 shows an impending action, which focuses attention on the dinosaur and the girl. Impending action is a powerful attention-grabber. If the subject in a picture looks like she is about to do something, it naturally calls us to look to see what she is about to do.


Notice how some of the light passes through the ball. This makes it so you can see both the front and back of the ball through the ball. It also makes it so you see the table on the other side of the ball, including the shadow of the ball. The highlight, core shadow, reflected light, and other aspects of light and shadow don’t go away just because the object is transparent. In DAZ Studio, you can control the transparency of an object in the Surfaces tab, as discussed in Chapter 5. The Surfaces tab also controls many other aspects of a surface, like reflectivity, roughness, and color.

Although virtual models should not take the place of human models, they do add a valuable resource for the artist when real models are unavailable or the pose is unattainable. Often artists are faced with needing to draw a figure with no time, money, or availability of a model. Sometimes the pose needed for a drawing is something that can’t be held by a model, such as requiring dynamic motion in sports or other extreme physical activity like that shown in Figure 13/2. In these situations, artists in the past had to rely on their own visualization abilities. Now, however, artists can set up models in DAZ Studio and use them as reference for their artwork.


First part of the event was exploring a basic machine and explain about the mechanism. Working of Hand Grenades were explained in a detailed way. In the second part, students were given a crazy logical question with miscellaneous answers and voting for answers were called. Then a brain teaser question was posed and students were asked to find the answers before next session. Participants enjoyed this technical event too.

Space-Targeting for Animation in Maya

The manufacturing plant is completely dedicated for engine manufacturing. From the manufacturing of ‘engine head’ to the final assembly, all the processes were completely shown and explained to students by the engineers present in the plant. This industrial visit to Ashok-Leyland has given students a practical experience of what they have learned about IC-Engines in the theory course.


Tech in Mechanical Engineering at Amrita School of Engineering, Bengaluru, from 2021-2021

All of the complex custom character tools Luma has, are deeply embedded in Luma’s pipeline and are attached to the rig. The animators GUI and animation tools that they have known and honed their skills with, are proprietary rig related elements. Luma clearly wants to support their animators by not changing this environment and allowing them to focus on the creative animation. Luma did take the model and convert some of the shaders to fit in, but unlike the rig, the model is highly transferable.

Creative description, another event for the participants, got the lyricist and fantasist out of everyone. Day to day used mechanical components became the muse for the hidden Marrett and Marcus in each participant. Students took part in the events with great fervour.


Anger is indicated by a stiff gesture, with many muscles straining against one another. The stance often looks like two upward pointing arrows, one over the other.

By breaking down your picture into lines you begin to become aware of some of the dynamics in your composition. For example, lines tend to have a directional quality that moves the viewer through the picture. In a way it is like looking at a roadmap. Your eye will tend to follow the lines of the roads on the map. Figure 3/19 shows some of the more prominent movement lines and directions in the picture. Now that you understand a little about breaking down a picture into shapes and lines we can move forward and talk about how to organize the shapes and lines of a picture.


Vehicle Rigging in Maya

Color The color of the object is the object’s natural color without any modification from any lights in the scene. It also means any patterns or textures on the surface. You will notice there are two boxes under Color. The top box has three numbers in it. These numbers correspond to the RGB values of the currently selected color. RGB stands for Red, Green, and Blue and they are the color values used in computer displays. If you click on the box, it will bring up a color selector where you can change the surface color. The lower box controls the surface’s texture. If you click on the small black arrow on the right, you can select a new texture for the surface. Figure 5/9 shows the available texture to choose from. Figure 5/9 Here is a list of available textures for the pants.

An Interview with our Animation Department

The guideline interface will then appear. Create guidelines for the profile view similar to how you did for the front view, as shown in Figure 6/30.


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Morphs In addition to bones, another important aspect of a DAZ figure model is its ability to change its shape. DAZ models have Morph sets that allow the artist to adjust the models in many ways. Morphs are changes to the model geometry that change the look of the model. Figure 4/10 shows the morphs associated with the QuickStart Victoria model. They are located in the Parameters tab at the very bottom of the list. You may need to scroll down using the scroll bar to find them.

Note There are two versions of FaceShop: Basic and Pro. Basic is a free plug-in, while you will have to pay for Pro. But the added features of Pro are worth the money because it gives you greater resolution for your pictures and extensive tools to fine-tune your characters. I will be using Pro in this demonstration.


As you pose your character, you can save your poses in Puppeteer. Then all you need to do is select the pose point in Puppeteer to get the right pose for your picture.

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Power Pose has a guide for the body part movement that corresponds to the mouse movement at the bottom of the Power Pose tool in case you ever need a reminder. It is a good idea to watch the guide because it will change depending on what body part is chosen. In Figure 11/3 notice that the guide is quite different when the abdomen is chosen. Figure 11/3 The guide changes when a different body part is chosen.


Notice that the upper-right corner now contains the figure. There are four green dots on the head: one for the neck, one for the head itself, and one for each eye. Each one can be moved to modify how the head looks. The two orange triangles are tools for use in moving both eyes at the same time. Figure 4/9 shows the bones of the hands. Figure 4/8 Power Pose shows the bones of the face.

From: Maya 2021 Essential Training

If the character is off balance, the viewing will be uncomfortable for the audience of your picture because there will be a feeling of an impending fall. In Figure 7/11, the character is leaning to one side. She looks as if she is about to fall. The viewer may feel the need to try to catch her.


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In life as in virtual settings, we need light to see. Without it, everything would be black. Light is what defines our visual world. In this chapter, I will cover lighting as it relates to creating pictures in DAZ Studio. To do this, I will first give an overview of how light works in the real world. Having a clear understanding of light in life will help you to simulate it in your art. I will then explain how to add lights to your scenes in DAZ Studio.

Miek is a warrior thanks to his bladed suit rig. Early on in the process Jake Morrison, the visual effects supervisor was insistent that Miek be as likable as Korg, even without having any dialogue. Morrison instructed the team to have Miek always active, very agile, always moving. The character model was done by Framestore and “he is essentially a worm with an exoskeleton” remarks Pimentel.


The most advanced way of manipulating a character is to use the Active Pose tool. The Active Pose is a child-to-parent tool that allows the user to move a child affecting the up-line parent bones in a string. For example, in Figure 7/5 I used the tool to pull the forearm up and to the side. Notice how the up-line bones of the arm and torso are affected. Also, notice how the down-line bones of the hand react as normal. To get the same type of pose movement as seen above with the other tools would take the adjustment of several bones. By using the Active Pose tool, I am able to do it with just one selection. The Active Pose tool is ideal for roughing in the basics of a pose because of its freeform nature; however, it is often difficult to get exactly the pose you want. This is why many artists will start by setting up the basic pose using the Active Pose tool and then refine it using the other tools.

Mr. Sachin Pullil (5S, ME), Secretary, Jido, introduced the members of the club for the academic year 2021-17 and presented a video which expounded on the objectives of the club. The inauguration was followed by the workshop.


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Some environments from DAZ cover large areas and allow for multiple camera positions. Other environments are more limited. In this next section, we will take a look at how you can create your own environments for use in DAZ Studio using another DAZ tool called Bryce.

Method’s work can also be seen in a sequence where Hela arrives at Asgard and fights with hundreds of D-Guards, decimating them all single-handedly. The high action sequence features a CG Asgard environment, hundreds of CG “E-Guards,” FX destruction and a CG Hela. Hela and the D-guards posed another key rigging project for the team, but based much more on traditional anatomy.


At the end of the workshop, Dr. Veeresh Kumar G. B felicitated the trainers and presented them the mementos. Following this, Mr. Syed Md Asdaur Rahman, Dr. Veeresh Kumar G. B. and Mr. Prashanth B. N, presented the participants with their Certificate of Merit for attending the workshop.

Building a Scene in Bryce Bryce is a full 3D scene creation program and contains a number of tools and functions that we will not be able to adequately cover in this book. Instead, we will take a quick look at how the program is used to create a simple background. DAZ has a complete set of reference and tutorial documents that you can refer to for more information on using Bryce. When Bryce first comes up, it will already have an infinite plane and a sky—an infinite plane with a repeating texture that extends infinitely to the horizon. Figure 10/17 shows a rendering of the default scene. You could just use the infinite plane and place your DAZ characters on it for the ground, but it is not very interesting. Instead, let’s build some scenery elements.


A good way to simulate reflected light is to add one or more lights to the scene. I add a second distant light to the scene and position it to shine from the bottom and to the side, illuminating the dark buildings as shown in Figure 12/16.

The remaining part of the internship was under the joint supervision of Prof. Subir Kumar Saha of Mechanical Engineering Department, IIT Delhi, and New Delhi.


AniMate automatically applies the animation to the character

Now we have our character Victoria standing by her volleyball without the backdrop. Go to the View Selection menu and change the view to front, as shown in Figure 3/3. Notice how the view changes slightly. We are now viewing Victoria from the direct front. Now let’s look at her from the back. Change the view to the Back View, as shown in Figure 3/4. Now your view is directly behind Victoria. Next let’s look at Victoria from one of the sides. Change the view to the Left View to see her from her left side, as shown in Figure 3/5.

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The lines between vertices are called edges. If you started with one three-sided polygon and added another vertex, you could form another polygon having a common edge with the first, as shown in Figure 1/3.

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Summary Lighting is one of the most important and easiest ways to get your pictures in DAZ Studio to look great. Good lighting can make a virtual scene appear to be a real life setting.


In addition to lighting, another important aspect of detailed reference is the texture information. The artists and designers at DAZ 3D have gone to great lengths to create as detailed textures as possible. To the point that even things like small skin blemishes, skin pours, and even single strands of hair are as close to reality as possible. Figure 13/6 shows a close up of a character’s face. Notice the incredible detail in the skin. Figure 13/6 Lighting is important for any detailed reference.

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If there are many characters in a picture, the head of one of the characters will likely be the center of attention, and the other character heads will be secondary centers of attention. While this rule is not 100% true, it is generally the rule. It is natural for us to look first at any face that appears in a picture. In life if we want to know how a person feels, we don’t look at his feet, we look at his face. Even small children train themselves to know when mom and dad are happy or angry by looking at their parents’ faces. Even small movements of an eyebrow or lips can have a major impact on conveyed feelings. Therefore, one of the first places we focus on when meeting someone in the real world is her face. In this chapter, we will look at the many possibilities available to the artist when using models in DAZ Studios for expressive art with a character’s head.

Note Left and right orientation in DAZ studio is based on the 3D scene not the physical left and right of the screen. Therefore, if you look at a scene from the Left View, you will be looking at Victoria’s left side.


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A total of 32 students successfully completed the program in which they were trained on modules viz. Pneumatics, Electro-pneumatics, PLC programming, Hydraulics,CNC milling and CNC turning. Softwares such as FluidSIMpneumatics, FluidSIMhydraulics were taught under industrial automation lab. Programmable Logic Controller course included theory, graphical language (ladder diagrams) and operating induction motors and pneumatic cylinders using Siemens. CNC training included writing the basic and advanced programming in turning and milling, feeding the program into Fanuc and Siemens systems and hands-on machining experience.

For a quadruped to stay balanced, two feet have to stay on the ground

Chris Hemsworth with Director Taika Waititi in the role of Korg with an eyeline rig on his back. Photo: Jasin Boland, Marvel Studios 2021.


A few of our developers host their own gaming podcast that occasionally features news and interviews with members of the Grinding Gear Games team. If you enjoyed hearing about animation, check out their most recent podcast for a Q&A with Ed.

SAEINDIA Collegiate Club, ASE Bangalore has qualified for the Main BAJA SAEINDIA. BAJA is an event for the undergraduate engineering students, organized globally by the Society of Automotive Engineers. The Virtual Baja is the first round in this competition, and it was held on 24th June at Christ University, Bangalore. Five students from a team of 25, represented the Collegiate Club. They gave a presentation on the virtual design of their All-terrain vehicle and online exam.


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In Figure 10/31, I have moved the dragon closer to the camera and rotated it to face us. Now I want to add a little atmosphere to the scene to separate the mountains from the dragon. In the Sky & Fog toolbar, I use the Fog Height tool to raise the fog, as shown in Figure 10/32. Figure 10/33 shows the scene rendered with the Fog. I have only lightly touched on some of the creative possibilities available in Bryce. There are many parts of the program that I wasn’t able to cover. However, I am sure you can see its usefulness in creating backgrounds for your art.

All the above students, along with Mr. K. Sai Phani (S4 ME A) attended Advances in Robotics (AIR2017), 3rd International Conference of Robotics Society of India at IIT Delhi during June 28 to July 2, 2021. A group photograph along with Mr. Rajeevlochana G. Chittawadigi (their mentor for internships) is below.


Animating a character without incorporating an emotional state is kind of like cooking without any seasonings

Last 15 minutes was a questionnaire session where students came up with their questions and doubts which were answered. Also, the importance of employing 5hw method of learning in the learning process was also explained.

The mathematical expression generator in our system plays the key role in producing automated motion gaits and is derived from Bhatti et al. (2021) study. As we know that the periodic sinusoidal motion is driven through the time variable, so the time in ‘frames (tf)’ has been used with 24 frame-per-second (fps).


But, to create a tool to automate that would be beyond the scope of Genesis 8 for Maya

The legs of the character are composed of four joints, stemming from the hips and the chest. The foot is a single joint that allows for rotation from the ankle (see Figure 17/8). A relatively simple foot control was chosen because our dog character will not need to have individual control over each toe and claw separately.

The workshop is a part of the project of National Mission on Education through ICT, supported by MHRD. Under this project called “Empowerment of Students & Teachers through Synchronous & Asynchronous Instruction. The participating teachers attended the workshop and also attended tutorial and lab sessions conducted at the Amrita. The lecture transmission and live interaction took place through distance mode using the AVIEW technology and the internet.


So no need to panic but my computer is currently broken. I've kept all the animation files on a separate HDD so they are fine no matter what happens from herr, I just can't open them.

Dikshitaa R (S4 ME B) did her internship under the supervision of Prof. Subir K. Saha, Mechanical Engineering Department, IIT Delhi for the duration June 1 to June 27, 2021.


Detailed Reference Detailed reference is where the artist needs to have reference as close to the finished picture as possible. With detailed reference, the artist is using the lighting and texture information as well as the structural to understand how to paint or draw the character or an entire setting. The artist wants as much information as the reference can supply. The creators of DAZ Studio put a significant amount of effort into creating a program that simulates the real world as closely as possible. Their rendering technology is one of the most advanced ever developed. Their characters and settings are as lifelike and detailed as possible. A lot of work went into enabling the artist to create scenes as true to life as if they were photographed from the real world. For detailed reference, the artist will almost always need to render the scene with Raytracing for at least one of the light sources in the scene. For example, look at the two renderings in Figure 13/4. The one on the right was rendered using no Raytracing.

Under Morphs Expressions, you will see two more subsets: Base and Visemes. Base is a set of expression morphs that allow the artist to create an amazing array of facial expressions. If you open it, you will notice an extensive list of morphs. In Figure 4/14, I changed a few parameters and now have Victoria looking very tired in the middle of a yawn. Try making up some of your own expressions. The amount of control available for morphs in DAZ Studio makes it possible to give your characters any expression you can think of.


This device is a simple add-on to the built in central locking system in cars. There are just two switches on the roof of the car, which can be accessed by passenger to ascertain whether the safety device is working and not tampered with when he/she gets in to the vehicle. The other is the panic button; on pressing, the electronic signals are sent to cutoff fuel supply to the engine, which stops the car and jams the driver’s door and seat belt, while other three doors can be opened so that passengers can get out of the vehicle. Also, the vehicle sets off an alarm to people around so that they can reach the passenger for help.

We have developed our own automatic character rigging system to facilitate our procedural animation setup

Ingenium in collaboration with Bosch Vocational Training Centre, Bangalore conducted a session on Introduction to Bosch Vocational Centre training on 16th Oct 2021 which was attended by 79 students. Mr. Shashi Kumar, Mentor, Ingenium started the session by introducing the trainers from BVC, Mr. Harish Y. Kamath and Mr. S. R. Jagadish Rao. The session began with a keynote by Mr. Harish, BVC, who shed some light on the various courses offered to the students by BVC through a video and then explained the importance of these courses to under-graduates.


Learn time-saving rigging techniques and the principles of building solution-based rigs and controls for more efficient animating (get the facts). Software required: Maya (their website) 8/5 or higher.

You do this by locating the center of mass of the body and then determining if it is supported by the figure. To find the center mass, look to the person’s hips. Even though the chest or upper torso of some characters may be larger than the hip area, the hips are what really determine the balance of a figure.


Now, one of the things is that I've been animating this crankshaft kind of just how I felt

Head Morphs The head has a number of Morphs attached to it for creating facial expressions and lip sync animation. With Victoria, there are two major groups of Morphs: those that change the shape of the head and those that are used for facial expressions. Shape Morphs include Hair and Male. Yes, you can change Victoria’s head shape to a Male head. There are three male head Morphs: Paul, John, and George, and they are shown in Figure 6/5.

First, I found the dragon in the DAZ Dragons folder within the Figures folder. A picture of the dragon then appeared in the lower pane. The dragon was loaded into the scene by clicking on its picture in the lower pane, dragging it into the scene, and then releasing the mouse button. It doesn’t get much simpler than that. Additionally, you can double-click on the icon and it will load into the scene. You probably noticed that the dragon didn’t look the same as the picture. That is because it is missing a texture.


Change the content view to tree then go to the File menu and click New to bring up a new empty scene. Now you are ready to start adding content to your scene. In Figure 2/17, I have added a dragon character to my scene.

Highlights The Highlight function is used to adjust the color of highlights in the scene. Changing the highlight color can result in some interesting effects. A colored highlight gives the impression of a colored light hitting an area. Figure 5/12 shows an extreme example of changing the highlight color.


This group parents anything related to the character that should not be animated as a child of it

Changing the wireframe display color affects only the OpenGL display of the node, not any look or color attributes of the shader or the software-rendered elements. However, it affects the "hardware"-rendered wireframe color.

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The center of the teeter-totter is the fulcrum. A heavy person can teeter-totter with a lighter person by moving closer to the fulcrum or having the lighter person move farther away from the fulcrum. By placing a larger object or character near the center of the picture and placing the smaller object farther from the center, the picture will have a sense of balance. This approach to balance can add more drama to a picture. Figure 3/24 uses this method to balance the character in the foreground with the window in the background.

LOD In perspective view, a model will reduce in size on the screen the farther away from the camera it is positioned. There isn’t much point in plotting a lot of polygons if the model in the scene will only be a few pixels high. At that distance from the camera, most of the detail is lost anyway. Therefore, if models with a lower polygon count are used, the farther they get from the camera, the more characters you will be able to work with in a scene. LOD systems swap out models of characters and backgrounds based on their distance from the camera. That means that if I have two models, one close to the camera and one far away, the close model might have the base high polygon model while the one far away will use a lower polygon model. DAZ Studio’s LOD system uses multiple versions of a 3D model and automatically swaps the models based on distance from the camera. This helps the scene to be more responsive during creation and faster during rendering. Figure 9/2 shows several different versions of the Victoria model with the highest resolution on the right and the lowest on the left.


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Constant high emotion can be overwhelming to the audience. The let down gives the audience a rest, letting them prepare for the next one.

Rajeevlochana G. Chittawadigi was invited to attend 12th International collaboration Symposium on Information, Production and Systems (ISIPS 2021) at Graduate School of Information, Production and Systems, Waseda University, Kitakyushu Campus, Fukuoka, Japan on Nov 14-16, 2021. His paper/presentation on “Intuitive Control of Virtual Robots using Leap Motion Sensor” was awarded Excellent Paper Award in ISIPS2018. He also conducted a hands-on session to the students and faculty attending ISIPS on the topic “Robot Kinematics using RoboAnalyzer” at Waseda University, Fukuoka, Japan on November 14, 2021.


Mechanical Engineering is the mother of all branches of engineering. Contributions by this branch are enormous in the growth of technology over the centuries. Scope of the course varies from material research to product development. Skills needed for this course are strong computational mathematics, creativity and analytical abilities. Areas of study includes Manufacturing Processes, Mechanical Vibrations, Mechatronics, Heat and Mass Transfer, Tool Engineering and Design, Design of Machine Elements, Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Robotics. Excellent laboratory facilities, modern computer clusters, systematically designed curriculum and dedicated faculty members make this department a dynamic place to study. Graduates from the Department of Mechanical Engineering are highly-employable and sought after by many prestigious companies.

An Industrial visit was organized by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, headed by Mrs. Mrudula Prashanth for 4S ME students. A total of 30 students visited the factory on 30th March 2021. The factory, Vishnu Forge basically produces forged products using different forging methods. It also consists of huge lathes, milling and power cutting machines which is used for finishing operations. The students were explained about the different forging methods and were demonstrated live, the different ways of forging the components. The students found it very interesting and enjoyed experiencing the processes. The visit enhanced their understanding about the theory course which they have learnt in the class room thereby bridging the gap between the academic learning and an industrial environment.


The script does not automatically bind your skin geometry. That's a step that has to be done separately. During the rigging process some sets are created automatically accessible through the outliner. These sets contain the animation controls as well as all the actual skinning joints. These sets are roughly mentioned in the 'features' video about 40 seconds in. Simply select all the skin binding joints, select your skin mesh and smooth bind.

FaceShop will bring up a dialog box to load your photo, as shown in Figure 6/17. You can also choose the resolution of your texture.


The main aim of the workshop was to foster the gap between theory and practical knowledge. The workshop ended with a thanks note by Mr. Akarsh (secretary of the club).

This was a very big show for Framestore especially on hero characters. At the peak of production there were 13 riggers working on the film at Framestore. Overall the team delivered 459 heavy duty VFX shots.


Within its skeleton are more than 200 individual bones. Attached to the skeleton and throughout the body are more than 650 muscles. There is a big difference between drawing a stylized character on purpose and drawing a figure poorly. Because we are so familiar with our own bodies, small mistakes in construction or even in lighting will be noticed even by the casual observer. Even a stylized or cartoon figure will look bad if it isn’t drawn well. Having a virtual model as reference can help to minimize mistakes in drawing.

Color Focus Another very effective way to create a focal point is to use color. In Figure 3/29, the reddish orange of the dragon’s eyes are accentuated by the bluish green that surrounds them. Figure 3/29 The eyes contrast in color from the surrounding area.


This first chapter will introduce you to how 3D graphics are used for motion pictures, video games, art, and on the Internet. If you are unfamiliar with how 3D graphics are created, you might not understand what the term 3D graphics means. Many think of 3D movies where you have to wear special glasses to see art that looks three-dimensional. But for the purposes of this book, I will use the term 3D graphics as it relates to the use of computer-generated 3D models and animation.

The nose only has two different Morphs: NoseWrinkle and Nostrilsflare. These two Morphs work best in combination with other facial Morphs, but examples of them without other Morphs are shown in Figure 6/9. Figure 6/9 The nose only has two Morphs.


Mr. Prasanna, Head Training, Guhring Private limited was the resource person. He delivered a talk on the machining processes and its application in tool cutting industries. It was an interactive session with loads of videos to aid visualisation on the topic. The students had an excellent insight to what the cutting tool industries do, challenges faced by them and how they overcome it. The Seminar was attended by 120 S5 & S7 Mechanical students at E- Learning Hall.

Biped vs. Quadruped Locomotion

Animation in 3D applications usually happens in two primary ways, through Key-frame animation and Motion capture. Key-framing is the oldest and traditional technique which is immensely popular and still being widely used in the animation industry. The process of animating a character using Key-frame technique is very long and tedious. In this the animator has to manually move and reposition each body part through certain controllers and manipulators, positioning them with respect to time and keying their attributes. This process is lengthy and monotonous. The other technique used for animation is through Motion capture. There are various downsides to animating through Motion capture (mocap). First the cost of mocap technology is huge which can be around thousands of US dollars, thus making it very difficult for an ordinary production studio or freelance 3D animators to implement. Secondly, the animation artist then has to learn the tools and techniques of importing the mocap data and incorporating it onto the 3D character rig. Thirdly, problem with motion capture is that the mocap animation of quadrupeds is very difficult and practically impossible to get in various situations.


Bengaluru, conducted a short session for the students of S2 and S5 ME, ASE, Bengaluru. A glimpse of CAD softwares namely, Catia V5 and CREO Parametric was given to create the awareness of career opportunities that can open up due to knowledge of the same and also to promote active learning beyond the college curriculum so as to gain an extra edge over the competitors vying for the same opportunities as others.

As the following exercise shows, creating stand-in geometry is a very simple process. This geometry is simply a low-resolution version of the actual character geometry, which is then cut up into a separate piece per joint using a combination of the Cut Poly Faces tool and the Poly Separate command. The cut polygon pieces are then simply made a child of the joint that they correspond to. Now, the low-res geometry moves with the joint hierarchy but is not bound or deforming, so it is extremely fast and interactive for the animator to use.


Maybe you can animate how you react when you get angry

Characters can be anything from a large crowd to an individual person. A character could be the main star of the show or a background character to fill out a scene. Character artists specialize in the creation of articulated actors. These actors range from the very stylized cartoon to the ultra realistic human character.

In this instance, I have opened the full body morphs. As you can see, there are three morph sets with slider bars. The slider bars allow the artist to fine-tune the model to exactly the shape desired. For example, in Figure 4/11, I’ve made Victoria more muscular by sliding the BodyBuilder slider to the right. If I want to have our character put on a few pounds, I can use the Heavy slider, as shown in Figure 4/12. Play around with the morph sliders and see what kind of character you can come up with. Figure 4/11 The BodyBuilder slider can be used to make the character more muscular.


A big part of animation is making sure your poses can be recognised in a silhouette, that becomes tricky when the legs can be lost under the torso. The main thing I aim for is getting a good arc with the weapon, that's readable from all angles. If a sword slash lines up with the camera, it loses all readability and power.

A wax casting event was held at the Foundry lab by Ingenium and Kala (the art club) on 18th October 2021 from 3:30-4:30 pm. 20 teams with 2 members a team participated. The participants were to make a mould and pour molten wax into the moulds to obtain castings of the mould.


As you can see, without smoothing, the flat polygons of the pants are noticeable. It would take millions of polygons to give a rounded look without smoothing. Even though DAZ models are quite detailed, they still need to have some smoothing done to give them a completely natural look. The angle of the smoothing will determine the amount of smoothing between polygons. The default is 90 but it can go up to 180 and down to 0. If you need greater smoothing on an object, you can increase the number, and if you need less smoothing, you can decrease the number. For almost all instances, 90 works fine.

The procedure for loading Phonemes for speech animation is similar to using the Visemes Morphs with the exception that instead of setting keyframes for Morph sliders, you set a keyframe where you load the Phoneme. You can use the Visemes Morphs to adjust the Phoneme if you want, but be warned that the process is additive, meaning that you will need to zero out the Visemes when you load a new Phoneme.


Bridge the Gap- On Friday, 16th February 2021 Ingenium conducted an event called “Bridge the gap”. The objective of the event was to construct a bridge with the given materials. The students from all branches of Amrita School of Engineering attended this event.

Constraints As you move body parts, you will notice that the movement has limits, stopping the movement from going farther than the natural motion of the joint. In animation these limits are called constraints, meaning the movement of the joint is constrained to a preset limit. Figure 11/4 shows forward extent of movement for Sadie’s left leg.


Countless people howl them down, essentially barraging them with comments that essentially point out the same things. A few people go to their page to leave abuse or derision on their wall. A few others start journals or send tweets about it etc etc.

Stefan Boltzmann’s constant and Emissivity are the two salient properties required in evaluating the heat transfer by radiation for a given substance and to compare the radiation emission between any given body and an ideal black body (Perfect emitter). These two properties can be obtained by means of the Stefan-Boltzmann’s Apparatus and Emissivity Apparatus.


Opacity Next, let’s take a look at Opacity. Opacity controls how transparent a surface is. Opacity can be used in a number of ways, like creating transparent-like veils or sheer material. Any surface in DAZ Studio can be made transparent as a whole just by using the slider bar, but the Opacity controls are more powerful than just a simple blanket opacity setting. You can also add an opacity map to any object. An opacity map is a 2D grayscale image that tells DAZ Studio what parts of the surface should be transparent and to what degree. This gives the artist the ability to have very fine control over any surface. In an opacity map, DAZ studio reads white as 100% opaque and black as 100% transparent. Ranges of gray are partially transparent. Figure 5/10 shows a black and white opacity map. The top of the map is white and the bottom of the map is black.

Understanding Scenes A scene in DAZ Studio is the work area where you will place your background objects, characters, and props. It also contains poses, lights, cameras, and anything else that you import or use to make up your art. Let’s take a quick look at the scene that loads with DAZ Studio. Click on the Scene tab on the left pane as shown in Figure 2/10. Figure 2/10 The Scene pane shows everything in the scene.


The trip bolstered the understanding of the students with the fast changing technology in thrust areas of manufacturing to support and serve in the manufacturing sector. Also it gave an insight on how shop floors are designed to give maximum production in least time.

DAZ is a registered trademark of DAZ Productions, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.


In fact, many artists spend a great deal of time planning how you will view their picture. They create focal points and pathways in their work. A focal point is an area in the picture that calls for attention. The call can be blatant, like a noisy child in a quiet classroom, or it can be gentle, like a bubbling brook in the mountains. Figure 3/25 shows a picture with a strong focal point. Figure 3/25 The focal point is obvious in this picture.

Animating Reactions An emotional reaction, no matter what it is, can be broken into several component parts, as shown in Figure 16/1. These parts are anticipation, building, key reaction, and letdown.


In this paper, we present an overview of the common techniques used to date for realistic quadruped animation

No. Because Originality is irrelevant. Some people also claim that he 'ripped off' a chunk from 'kings row'; though this influence is a lot less apparent. And that itself raises another problem with originality; where are it's boarders? Is the theme's originality dependent on whether Williams heard the other theme or not?

JIDO – The Automation Club in association with Ingenium – The Mechanical Forum organized an industrial visit to CMTI, Tumkur Road, Bangalore on 6th October 2021 for the ASEB mechanical students. Thirty S8 ME students accompanied by Mr. Prashanth B N and Mr. Pramod R, faculty in the Department of Mechanical Engineering visited the plant. CMTI is an R & D organization focusing its efforts mainly on harnessing know-how in the manufacturing technology sector to practical purposes and assisting technological growth in the country. CMTI has the role of being a Catalyst and a Key Player in manufacturing technology growth in the country. Students were first briefed about the company, its technology and how the entire infrastructure of the plant is spread-out. A guide was allotted throughout the plant visit, who explained about the current thrust areas of manufacturing technology.


The third session of "CuriousUS" was held on 2nd November 2021. The session was hosted by Rachana, executive member 5S ME followed by "The crazy and impractical thinkers" by Ashika, executive member 3S. This session consisted of two electrifying topics. All those bored by living on Earth and planning to move to another planet and start a new life attended the session on "colonising mars" and "mining in asteroids", which are the most wondered, interesting topics that make you dive into the deepest part of your curiosity. Already amazed, our young thinkers were in for a surprise when this was followed by myth busters from Sukruthi, executive member 3S ME who cleverly discussed about myths such as hands immersed in molten lead would get burnt and watering plants with microwaved water would kill them. The outcome was, the myths got busted and their opposites were proved. As the event came to an end a question and answer session was conducted which thoroughly enlightened everyone on the most happening topics of the 21st century.

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FaceShop FaceShop is a plug-in for DAZ Studio that expands its already formidable set of tools for the creation of custom characters, even allowing the artist to create characters from her own photographs. FaceShop Basic is a free download from DAZ3D. It is easy to install: just use the DAZ installer and it will be placed in the DAZ Studio Edit menu.


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Quadruped Movement Understanding quadrupeds’ movement dynamics is essential to creating believable animation or accurate poses. Figure 8/3 shows the DAZ Millennium Dog model. When working with four legs, think of them as two sets of two legs. When a dog walks, the front and back legs walk in sync with each other, but they are moving opposite of each other. Figure 8/4 shows the dog in a walking motion.

Once the picture is loaded, you can adjust the picture with the tools provided just below the picture shown in Figure 6/18. Figure 6/18 You can adjust your picture with the tools provided.


I have g8 for for Maya I try and import base male and it just says please wait installing

These are animals that walk on the bones of the digits or toes (the phalanges), with the wrists and ankles elevated above the ground. Examples include most non-hooved vertebrates like dogs, cats, most mammals and dinosaurs. Note how in this dog gif, it’s just the fingers/toes/phalanges that meet the ground. The first joints just above the toes on the front legs are the wrists, and the long bones extending up from the toes on the back legs is actually the foot (most digitigrades and ungulates have very long feet) and the first joint above the toes is the ankle.

Applying Clothing to a Character Clothing a 3D model is as easy as putting on a shirt yourself, except that the model doesn’t have to button it up. There are several ways to add clothing to your character; some of them require you to load the article of clothing and then fit it to your character while other methods fit it automatically. The easiest way to add clothing is to have it fit the character automatically.


Genesis 8 for Maya works with the geo-grafts I have tested, but there are some limitations

These tutorials were aimed at helping them develop software for simulation of mechanisms. A total of 46 students attended these sessions which was also a shortlisting criteria for selection for various summer internships. Based on the performance in the programming assignments and their skills in CAD modeling and analysis in Autodesk Inventor and ADAMS, the following students were shortlisted for internships and the hosts have confirmed the same. These students will be underdoing summer internship for the duration May first/second week to June end, 2021.

It also allows for fine editing of the phonemes, gestures, and other aspects of animating someone talking

Originally, Surtur was going to be much more gaseous and the audience would see his skeleton more clearly. In the end this was modified and the gas elements turned into fire, magma and importantly slag. The cooling slag is naturally darker. This meant that in addition to being able to produce more solid forms, the team could use the slag for the full frontal nudity shots. The naked Surtur had his modesty managed by darkening down sensitive regions with slag and having them not particularly visible or defined to the audience.


Is it a photograph of a real scene or a computer-generated 3D object? Actually, the scene is a computer-generated 3D graphic. It looks pretty real, doesn’t it? Computer graphics have matured to the point that they are regularly used in motion pictures, TV shows, and other media interchangeably with real characters or scenes. This has given rise to a whole new generation of graphical effects in motion pictures and TV shows, allowing directors to shoot scenes that a few years ago would have been impossible. It has also given rise to a new generation of video games that seem almost lifelike.

She is INTJ, and was saying I would be too. It was kind of accurate, but it was slightly off for both of us, which is about in line with my initial prejudice towards the test. I did the test myself but came up slightly dofferent with INTP. I read through the explinations and fuck me if its not spot on; it explained precisely how and why my mind works and the strengths and weaknesses I have because of that.


The next keyframe is an anticipation frame. To make a motion seem natural, it is usually a good idea to do a slight counter motion just before the larger motion. I want Michael to throw a hard punch with his left hand. On frame one I have Michael twist just a little to his left and bring his left arm in just a little. I also lift his left leg as if he is just about to take a step. The movements are slight but important. See if you can see the difference in Figure 14/7. I create the next keyframe at frame 5 with the fully extended punch, as shown in Figure 14/8. A punch is a relatively quick action, taking just a fraction of a second, so we want to make sure it only covers a few frames.

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You should now have a selection set that looks like the one shown in Figure 10/25. Figure 10/25 Choose the vegetation terrain set.


Whatever the purpose is, it will form the foundation for developing the work to completion. Having a purpose for your pictures gives you direction.

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Creating a Pose If you are ready, let’s use Power Pose to create an original pose. Rather than starting with Sadie’s default position, it is often easier to start with a predefined pose that is close to the one you want to have as a finished pose. In this example, we will start with a pose that has Sadie with her hands on her hips in a scolding attitude.


I am a Brazilian Game Dev, and is far away from possible to get the Full Maya

Neither of us know anything about them; does anyone out there know if they are any good for this sort of stuff, and if so, which models would do a decent job of things like this? And if not, are there any similar products around that could?

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Color contrast is usually achieved by placing colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel next to each other. These colors are called complementary because they tend to appear brighter next to each other. A similar effect can be achieved by placing an intense color next to muted colors.

Are you seeing the Genesis 8 for Maya window when it finishes importing

The students were given an insight on the advantages of CMS-Pro\E course and how it has been developed to cater to Engineering students seeking to improve their employment prospects by improving their skills and build their career through higher productivity and technical expertise. The talk was organized on 20th August 2021 at E-Learning hall.


The project is a first of its kind with the bulk of power generation happening underground without causing global warming. Underground power generation is more eco-friendly since it increases the head of water and also reduces submerged area at the reservoir. Students could see the turbines, protected flanged couplings, valve mechanisms used to control nozzles using servomotors aided by pneumatic and hydraulic systems.

ILM is the real visual effects home of Hulk, they have had a long history in developing and ‘solving Hulk’. The giant character proved extremely hard to translate onto film, partly due to the technical constraints of such a lead semi-human facial solve and partly due to his odd colouring and also from a performance stance. Hulk has once again evolved in this film. He has evolved from an aggressive and often confused persona that just grunted or smashed his way through scenes, to a more refined Hulk that has hot tubs and sits chatting.


Cut the geometry into a separate piece for each joint, trying not to cut across other parts of the geometry that shouldn't be split yet. Then, each time you cut, separate the polygons and delete the history. Eventually, you will be finished cutting up the entire geometry.

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Informal Balance Objects or characters in a composition don’t have to be equal in size or mass to balance a picture. Artists can use the principle of the fulcrum lever in compositions to create a feeling of balance even though the objects are two different sizes. A fulcrum lever is like a teeter-totter, as shown in Figure 3/23.


As you look at comparative anatomy, you’ll note that there’s not much of a difference in the skeletal structure of the torso of vertebrates. There’s the skull, the spine including the neck and possibly a tail, the ribcage and the pelvis.

In this set of tutorials we will learn techniques for rigging quadrupeds in Maya (look at this web-site). We'll start by learning how to enhance the Flexi system, we created in Advanced Character Rigging in Maya (https://yamamotonight-m.ru/hack/?patch=6562), making it more robust for spines, necks, and areas of the like, while making sure to keep this modular component clean and animator-friendly. We'll then build our creature's skeleton from the ground, up, and learn how the Flexi rig can be easily inserted to save us a lot of time.


In this series of tutorials we will learn how to animate (useful link) a run cycle for a quadruped-type creature. We'll start by learning how to set our animation preferences. We'll then have a look at references we can use to guide us in achieving realism throughout the animation. After this, we'll begin our blocking pass, and from there, we'll move to refining our work with time-saving techniques. Once we've completed the cycle, we'll then learn how to translate it forward. By the end of this training, you'll have the skill-set to animate your own quadrupeds in Maya (check my source). Software required: Autodesk Maya 2021.

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Character Props Character props are props that a character carries either in her hand or attached to her body or clothing. A jewelry prop is shown in Figure 10/1. Character props can also be things like weapons, as shown in Figure 10/2.


In addition to Surtur and a legion of fire demons, Thor also encounters an enormous dragon, a wingless CG creation that flies by shooting fire from its gills. Artists referenced footage of rocket launches and used the straight, fast flame from the engine to guide the development of the dragon’s propulsion flames. From there, they adjusted the amount of thrust so the result was believable but not too forceful. The creature’s skin was modeled after Surtur, but with a more leathery aesthetic.

Key Reaction The key reaction phase of an emotional reaction is probably the most important phase of all. It is the defining aspect of the reaction that should stay in the mind of the audience well after the reaction is over. In a still illustration, the key reaction is usually the best pose for your character to express an emotion. The key reaction, as shown in Figure 16/5, is the period of time that the character is fully engaged in the emotional reaction.


The function changes from a triangle to a square. Click the triangle to play the animation; then click the square to stop the animation.

The participants of the event were, 41 enthusiastic students from 5S and 3S ME, who competed among themselves to get selected to the second round of the contest. The students were selected based on their drafting skills. The competition was tough and the students who got selected were the best of the branch. The students gave their best performance to prove their caliber and the intrigue shown by the students to learn the softwares was laudable. The student turn up was good indicating their zeal to show their skill in drafting. The winners of first round were, Sai Vikas, V. Abishek Kumar, Mukesh Anand, M, Mounika.


The LOD tab shows what level of detail model you are using. You can leave the UV Sets tab alone as there are likely not parameters there you will need to change. Once you have everything ready, click Accept and your avatar will be exported in Collada format.

You have just point-constrained the IK handle to this locator. You've also orient-constrained the foot so that rotating it rotates the foot and translating it moves the IK for the leg.


In this workshop, the first step will be to learn how the anatomy of animals work and then applying that knowledge to an animation rig. Animated tests will consist of various actions incorporating walks, runs, leaping and of course strong poses.

Gallery The Gallery is a collection of art created in DAZ Studio by people like you who are using it now. See for yourself how versatile and exciting the artwork is. As you can see, there is almost no limit to what you can create.


Power Pose Power Pose was developed to help the artist’s workflow by creating a powerful interface for posing the character. It speeds the process of posing the figure by giving the artist a clean, easy interface for selecting and moving body parts. It is shown in Figure 11/1 on the right side of the screen. The cute little girl 3D model in the scene is called Sadie. She is available through the DAZ Store. If you look at Power Pose, you will see a silhouette of a figure with several green dots representing various moveable body parts. These dots make it easy to select any body part no matter how your character is currently posed. The basic premise behind using Power Pose is to select a body part by clicking the green dot that represents that part and moving the body part by moving the mouse either up and down or left and right. The movement of the mouse and the mouse button pressed determines the type of movement the body part will make. For example, with Sadie’s left shoulder selected, I can use the left mouse button to pull her arm down by pulling the mouse toward me. I can also move her arm forward or backward by moving the mouse right or left, as shown in Figure 11/2.

Other Non-Human Characters As you can see, there is a wide variety of non-human creatures available for use with DAZ Studio. This variety can give your imagination a wide range when you are searching for just the right characters for your next picture. In addition to the characters we have already mentioned in this chapter, a few more are shown in Figures 8/16 and 8/17. You can also go sci-fi with a wide variety of robot creature models, as shown in Figure 8/18.


Use the IK Handle tool to create an IK handle from the Dog_right_backLeg_1 joint to the Dog_right_backLeg_3 joint. Name the new IK handle thighIkHandle, and freeze its transforms by choosing the menu command Modify, Freeze Transformations while it is selected.

Using Lip Sync Lip Sync automates the speech animation process and gives you a way to create long animation sets without hand animating every animation change. While it is not perfect, and you will need to go through a touch-up pass over the animation, it does get pretty close to a final speech animation. To fully utilize the power of Lip Sync, you first need to set up the model configuration. You do this by loading a configuration file for the model.


The workshop was organized to help the students to manufacture their Baja Buggy. Major topics like braking, suspension, DFMEA, DVP report and design report making were discussed in the workshop. They also explained about the various phases that is to be cleared before the Final event at PITHAMPORE, INDORE.

Further the students were taken to the nearby tourist places viz. St. Mary Island, Murudeshwara and Gokarna as a part of excursion. Students expressed that they had a good real time experience in learning the facts.


These are animals - either bipedal or quadrupedal - that walk with the bones of the feet, hands or paws (the carpal, metacarpal, tarsal and metatarsal bones), flat on the ground. Examples include primates (humans), bears, mice, rabbits, kangaroos, etc.

Polygons are flat, three- or four-sided planes defined by points called vertices. Displaying a polygon on a computer screen requires mathematically plotting the polygon in 3D space. If you have ever used math to plot an object, you will understand how complex the calculations are. Now multiply those computations by the number of polygons in a character and you begin to see the complexity of displaying even a simple object. A high degree of detail in a 3D model requires a massive number of polygons. Figure 9/1 shows the polygons used to create Victoria’s head. Figure 9/1 Many polygons are used in a detailed 3D model.


Summary To build a full scene for your characters in DAZ Studios, props and environments are essential. In this chapter, we covered different types of props and how to attach them to your characters. We also covered backdrops and environments showing how each is used in DAZ Studio. In the last section, we covered a different program called Bryce that allows the artist to create his own unique environments. Hopefully you were able to glimpse in this chapter the great variety and creative opportunities available for creating beautiful settings for your art. In the next chapter, we will take a look at some advanced posing tools in DAZ Studio.

Balance and Weight For a character to look right with its surroundings, it needs to have balance and look like it has weight. One of the problems with posing a figure in a virtual setting, is the fact that it is easy to pose a figure that looks slightly odd or out of place. There could be a number of reasons for this but the most common one is that the figure may not look like it fits in the setting.


Mimic Pro Mimic Pro is a standalone program that you can use in conjunction with DAZ Studio that gives you complete control over lip sync animation. It takes many of the features of Lip Sync and expands them. It also allows for fine editing of the phonemes, gestures, and other aspects of animating someone talking. With Mimic Pro you can have the program automatically animate the most complex voice tracks and then go in and fine-tune it with specialized tools that make animating the character’s head easy and quick. Mimic Pro works much the same as Lip Sync does using a sound file in conjunction with a text file; however, the text file is optional because Mimic Pro can work just from a sound file. Mimic Pro also has a feature where you can load a video file and then animate your character frame by frame using the video as a reference. You can launch Mimic Pro within Lip Sync by clicking the Launch Mimic Pro button or you can open the program on its own. When you open Mimic Pro you will see the Session Manager window shown in Figure 15/8. This tool allows you to set up your session by giving Mimic Pro the important information it needs to work properly. Like Lip Sync you can load a sound file, a text file, and a configuration file.

DNeg also did a smaller scene in Val’s apartment and again DNeg replaced the blue screen exterior with the Sakaar environment. This sequence totalled another 70 shots.


The ranges of motion are also useful for animating a whisper or a shout

The session was organized for S5 Mechanical Engineering students to educate them about the CAD software - Catia V5. An overview of various advantages through the knowledge of Catia and a wide range of developments in the PLM environment at the industry level was given by the delegate. The session provided an insight into the industrial working methods and the fundamental readiness required for competing with other job aspirants.

In the bottom-left corner of the Bryce interface is a small circular icon. This icon toggles between the full animation controls and the selection icons. The Animation controls are shown in Figure 10/16.


Expression driven trigonometric based procedural animation of quadrupeds. Proceedings of the International Conference on Informatics and Creative Multimedia, September 4-6, 2021, Kuala Lumpur, pp: 104-109.

You will notice that the articles of clothing have small plus symbols next to them. When you expand these, you will see that they follow a similar pattern as that of the Victoria model. In Figure 5/2, I have expanded the shoes to show the hierarchal connections from the hip to each foot. While only the shoes are visible, the bones from the hip to the feet match those of Victoria. In this way, the shoes can follow Victoria’s movements. The bone structure is another reason that clothing is created specifically for each character model. If even one Figure 5/2 Clothing has bone structures similar to character models.


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The overall workshop was aimed to create awareness among the students about Virtual Reality and its fascinating features. The workshop received an immense positive response and participants showed interest to participate in such workshops in the future.

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DAZ Studio supports cast shadows using a technology called Raytracing. Raytracing is a process where shadows are plotted based on the light’s position and the shape of the object. It is a very time-consuming process; therefore, it is turned off by default in DAZ Studio. I only want the first light to cast shadows, so I select it and turn Raytracing on, as shown in Figure 12/19.


The first layer of joints chain is controlled by the trigonometric expressions and the second layer provides user controls for custom manipulation of the animated character. Using this model we can produce several animation types for quadruped characters including walking, trotting, ambling and racking. The gaits transition was achieved using the Leg Impact Phase (Lip) and duration (Ldp) of contact with the ground.

Some of the items in the list have a small + sign next to them. This means that you are not looking at a single item but rather a group of items tied together in what DAZ Studio calls nodes. For example, in Figure 2/12, I have expanded part of the Victoria model’s node. You will notice that some of these are nodes within nodes. Nodes are hierarchal, meaning that if you select the first item in a node, all of the items below it are also selected. If, on the other hand, you select the bottom item in a node, only that item is selected.


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You can hook up a control box to a rigged character in several ways. Basically, the main goal is to in some way connect the transformation controls of the control box into the transformation controls of the character rig. You can achieve this through expressions, complex node networks, or just simple constraints or parenting relationships.

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Notice the difference in lighting in the renderings. The hair and nose have distinct cast shadows. The rendering on the right seems to have more depth and is more dimensional even though there is no difference between the two versions other than the rendering. The raytraced images are more lifelike than other rendered images because they use a more advanced simulation of lighting. The problem with raytraced images is that they take a significant amount of time to render. The image on the left took less than a minute to render while the one on the right took more than 20 minutes to render. Having good shadow information isn’t just important within your character, it is also important within your scene. Notice in the two renders in Figure 13/5, the figure on the left seems to float above the ground and does not seem anchored to the earth. The figure on the right looks like she is actually in the scene.


Foundry lab is equipped with sand moulding, sand testing apparatus such as permeability tester, clay content tester, sieve analyser, moisture content tester etc, The foundry shop has multiple sets of patterns, different type of core boxes and related tools to provide hands on experience to students individually. The lab is effectively used for various activities such as teaching, training students, & professional club activities as well, so as to familiarize them with different mould preparation and various sand testing techniques.

As far as the installation process is concerned, there is a pdf document in the downloaded zip file which explains the basic steps. There is also a video tutorial available about demonstrating the installation of the package.


As game systems have become more and more powerful, these technical limitations have increased, giving the game artist more and more freedom. Even with advances, however, 3D graphics still have upper limits that the artist has to maintain to allow the game to run at a decent speed. Video game artists use DAZ Studio as a tool to help them visualize scenes and test out characters. Figure 1/11 shows a video game scene visualization.

SAEINDIA Collegiate Club ASE Bengaluru arranged a Technical Talk on MEMS Technology on 5/03/2021 at 2/30pm in E-Learning center. Speaker for the talk was Mr. Mithun B - Product manager Sri Dutt technologies, Bangalore.


The field requires a solid understanding of core concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, materials science, and energy. Mechanical engineers use the core principles as well as other knowledge in the field to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices and more.

Students from all the branches participated in the event. A total of 60 students took part. The event commenced with the presentation by Mr. AKARSH (Year III, Mech) the presentation went on in an interactive manner and the presentation was made on 5W AND H Method Who, What, When, Where, Why and How so as to make the event more interesting and interactive.


Udupi Power Corporation Limited Located at Padubidri of Udupi district. The company supplies fly ash to cement manufacturing plants. It has a highly sophisticated facility producing significant power at all times generating a major fraction of the power requirement in the state. The plants’ system for waste management and disposal is of very high standard and work towards generation of power while causing as minimal damage to the environment as possible.

The LOD versions for Victoria include a 1K, 2K, 4K, and 17K designation. These numbers correspond to the number of polygons in each model. The 1K version has about 1,000 polygons. The 2K version has about 2,000 polygons. The other options for the LOD are for setting up the LOD system in DAZ Studio. The Use Dynamic Setting function turns on the LOD system. The Edit Dynamic Settings function lets you set up the distances and model versions for the LOD system.


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Reflected Light The shadow area does not receive direct light from the light source, but it does receive indirect light. Indirect light is reflected from other surfaces onto the ball. In the picture of the ball, the light that hits the table and reflects back to us also reflects back toward the ball. The reflected light gives definition to the shadow area of a picture.

Ebin Jose, joint secretary, INGENIUM (Year III, ME), then took over the proceedings by some eye-opening facts which included ‘power production from lightning ‘etc. At last they have announced the new interest of the forum ‘MECHWHIZ OF THE YEAR’, which will be given to the most active participant from all the events.

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The next step is to set up the face. You start by just placing three points on the face. All you need to do is click on the outside corners of the eyes and on the center of the chin, as shown in Figure 6/19.


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As you can see, posing a character using Power Pose is easy and takes very little time. Learning the mouse controls allows you to select and move body parts quickly and effectively.

Read Using LayLo 3D Plug-Ins in Maya

Summary This concludes our discussion of camera. As you can see the camera is one of the most important tools you have as an artist in creating your art. I hope the concepts covered in this chapter will help you as you plan future pictures. You have just covered a number of composition concepts in a single chapter. I added composition to this chapter because it relates very much to the camera. Knowing how to move the camera about is not as important as knowing why you should move it about the scene. I hope that composition is not such a mystery for you now. A very good way to test yourself is to take an art history book and see whether you can find some of the concepts covered here in the art that you find in it. In the next chapter we will be taking a look at the 3D figure models used in DAZ Studio so you can gain a better understanding of how they work and how you can use them in your scenes.


Hint The number of frames per second is very important to the animator. Beginning animators often make the mistake of keeping the difference in movement between frames even. They do not take into account that faster movements have greater differences between frames, while slower movements have lesser movements between frames. However, movement between frames should not be sporadic, causing the animation to have a jerky appearance. Differences in movement rates should be smooth.

The option screen shown in Figure 10/29 will appear. Go to the Advanced tab and check the options shown. This will export the DAZ Studio file into a format that Bryce can read. Figure 10/29 Make sure the Convert Maps (for Bryce) option is checked.


The total punch animation took a total of five keyframes to complete. There could be more but generally fewer keyframes in an animation results in a less jerky animation. Keyframes should be set at the apex of a motion, meaning the farthest point of movement in any one direction.

No. Student Name Host and Institute 1 Jai Singh Kushwah (S6 ME C) Prof. Subir K. Saha, IIT Delhi 2 Devarshi Pandey (S6 ME C) Prof.


Prakash Marimuthu K, Srinivas Rao. T, published a paper titled “An Ant colony approach to solve a vehicle routing problem in a FMCG company”, in International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD), Feb 2021.

Morphs in DAZ Studios are very powerful tools and you should check them out for each model. Many DAZ models have extensive morph systems that not only deal with the body in general but often with individual parts of the body. This is particularly true for a character’s head, where morphs are used for creating expressions and even making a character look like she is talking. Select Victoria’s head in the Scene tab, as shown in Figure 4/13. When you scroll down to the morph section in the Parameters tab, you will notice two subsets: Morphs Shapes and Morphs Expressions. Figure 4/13 The head has two subsets of morphs.


There were exhibits corresponding to different branches of science like Bio-technology, Space, Electronics and communication and many more which explained the concepts behind very complex engineering marvels which make the life of a man easy. The students got to know the basic working of the early inventions of mankind which paved the way for the current modern world, but the principle remains the same.

Props Sometimes it’s hard to know what is a prop and what isn’t. Technically, anything other than clothing can be called a prop, including hair; however, for this book we shall define props as items used by a character or in a scene that are not fit to the character.


Rigging a Simple Quadruped Character: The Dog

Changing Breeds DAZ models for animals are often very flexible and allow for a great deal of variety for the artist. Like the human characters, they also have Morphs that can be applied to change the look of the model. In addition, many of the models have multiple textures for even greater variety. For example, the DAZ’s Millennium Big Cat collection can take the lion model, as shown in Figure 8/9, and change it into several other big cat breeds, as shown in Figure 8/10.

In Figure 10/13, the top toolbar contains the create tools. These tools are used for bringing new objects or lights into a scene. There are two other toolbars that occupy the same space depending on what you are creating. The three toolbars are Create, Edit, and Sky & Fog. Figure 10/14 shows the Edit toolbar with its several edit tools. Figure 10/14 You can modify objects in Bryce using the Edit tools.


Open the Attribute Editor of the node and expand the Object Display frame layout. Then expand the Display Overrides subsection of the Object Display layout. Next, turn on the check box that reads Enable Overrides. Now the lower section that reads Color becomes enabled, and you can drag the slider and choose any color that you want.

Light that is visible to our eyes varies in color based on a full range or spectrum from red on one side to violet on the other, including all other colors in between. A good example of the full spectrum of color is a rainbow. White light is the purest form of light and contains all colors in the spectrum in equal measures. When white light strikes a red object, some of the light is absorbed into the object and is converted to energy, while the rest of the light is reflected from the object. The light that is reflected from a red object makes up the red portion of the spectrum. Thus, the red object becomes a red light source and we see the object as red. A white object reflects white light and absorbs the least amount of energy, while a black object absorbs the most energy. That is why wearing a black shirt in the sun is so uncomfortable. The black absorbs the light from the sun, converting it into heat, while a white shirt reflects most of the sun’s energy and is more comfortable.


The hand is already open so the first task will be to bend the other three fingers in while leaving her index finger out. Start with the knuckle closest to the palm and bend it in followed by the middle knuckle and then the end knuckle for each finger.

Point Lights A point light is a light source that lights outward from a single point in all directions. They are similar to an incandescent light bulb and are used primarily in indoor settings.


The Translate tool is seldom used in manipulating body parts. In fact, there are no translate options in the parameters for most bones, and when you select them, no manipulator will appear on screen. The only exception to this rule in most characters is the hip joint. This is because the hip is the root joint and can be used to move all the other joints connected to it. If you wanted your character to crouch like in Figure 7/7, the hip bone is lowered. The main purpose in posing is to position the character rather than moving body parts.

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When designing pathways in your art, you should always try to lead the viewer to the main subject of the picture and then back again. Pathways that loop out from the central focus and back again tend to keep viewers looking at the picture longer, while those that lead away from the focus will cause the viewer to spend less time with your picture. Try to recognize paths that lead out of your picture and eliminate them whenever possible.

Mech-charades, be the master of rapid answers, was a team event, where participants had to enigmatically describe the mechanical components to their partner within the time limits. The onerous description of components made getting right answers out of their partner like getting blood out of a stone.


Let’s start by defining our terms a bit so we’re on the same page. When we talk about “quadrupeds” or “bipeds”, we’re not talking about any specific zoological classification like a genus or a species; we’re talking about the animals' means of locomotion.

Department offers this programme to meet the challenges India is facing with energy starvation and per capita consumption of energy in India. India faces a formidable challenge in providing adequate and efficient energy supplies to users at a reasonable cost. It will be a great challenge to meet the energy demand, and producing it efficiently without polluting the environment. The programme is designed to enable the students to develop expertise in both theory and design of Thermal Systems, Energy Systems and Energy Management. This programme helps students to acquire knowledge on design and development of micro/nano scale thermal systems. The students learn to simulate various fluid, thermal and energy systems using different computational tools and also do experiments to test various thermal and energy systems.


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Customizing Characters When preparing a character for use as an avatar in other applications, there are a few important considerations. For one thing, you will first need to see whether the application accepts imported avatars. Many virtual worlds only use internal characters and do not allow the user to import her own characters; however, more and more are beginning to allow importing. Importing means that you create your character in a program other than the virtual world’s character creator and then through an importing process load that character into the virtual world. The importing process usually includes some specific requirements for models to work as avatars in the virtual world. These require a file format that the virtual world can read and a limit on how complex the models can be. DAZ Studio has created some systems and tools for preparing DAZ models to become avatars.

Some of the Morphs sliders are morph groups and some are single adjustments. For example, the first morph on the list is BrowUp-Down, which influences both brows up and down. If you move the slider, you will notice that not only does the percentage number change for BrowUp-Down but for several other slider bars as well.


Faculty Development Program and Training on “Robotics, Artificial Intelligence and Control (RAIAC 2021), organized by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Calicut (Kozhikode) on Feb 6, 2021. The event was sponsored by TEQIP III (MHRD) and India-Korea Joint Network Centre for Robotics (IKJNCR-IIT Delhi).

Design The word design is a nebulous term and covers 3D graphics as they are used in the design of everything from toasters to skyscrapers. Almost everything we use from the homes we live in to the books we read was designed by someone. Designers are the ones who decide how an automobile will look or how a toy will be put together. They are known by names like graphic designer, architect, and industrial designer. They often combine the skills of an engineer with that of an artist. Designers probably make up one of the largest groups of 3D graphic artists in the world. With the power of 3D graphics, designers are able to design virtually before they have to go through the trouble and expense of building their design in real life using real materials. This freedom allows the designer the opportunity to investigate multiple designs in a relatively short amount of time, increasing his creative output. DAZ Studio is a great tool for the designer because it allows him to visualize his product, building, or whatever he is designing in a setting with characters as if it were in a real environment. Figure 1/13 shows how an architect might use DAZ Studio to visualize a scene.


There was much discussion about how this Hulk should look, given that he would need to have much more dialogue than ever before. Previously his lines were limited to just a few words “Puny god” being the most famous. In the new film Hulk needed to have conversations with Thor, especially in the warrior’s apartment.

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Expression Morphs Morphs for creating expressions have two subtabs: Base and Visemes. Base Morphs are used for crating facial expressions and usually only affect a small part of the face like the corner of the mouth or an eyebrow. Visemes, on the other hand, are used in lip-sync settings when you want your character to talk or say specific words.


Preview Mode With two poses set, you can preview how Puppeteer blends between the two poses. Change the mode to Preview and slide the cursor between the two poses, as shown in Figure 11/16. Puppeteer goes beyond just blending two poses. The program blends between every pose on the grid. In Figure 11/17, I have added a third pose. Now when I slide the cursor in Preview mode the blending takes place between all three poses, as shown in Figure 11/18.

Shadow Area As the surface of the ball turns away from the light source, it no longer receives light directly from the light source. All of the area that does not receive direct light from the light source is called the shadow area. The shadow area generally receives the least amount of detail in a picture because there is less light to define this area. In situations where there is only one light shining on an object, such as a ball, roughly half of the ball will be in the shadow area and half will be in the light area.


Footprint locations and their timings are additional constraints used to generate various motions such as walking,galloping, jumping, push-ups and skating for four-leggedanimals. Physics is used to make the overall movement lookrealistic while IK is used for details, such as positioning theleg joints appropriately. Two point masses are connected bya spring that models the internal forces of the back. The pointmasses are located at the hips and shoulders of the animal,see Figure 12. The motion of the complete skeleton is reconstructed from the point mass trajectories. A trajectory iscalculated from one footprint to the next. Optimization ensures that the foot is at a reasonable distance from the bodyand collision avoidance is also handled. IK determine thearch of the spine and the position of the leg limbs, as wellas the movement of the head and tail. A user can controlwhere to place the footprints on a plane, specifying the xand z co-ordinates, while y co-ordinates are calculated according to the terrain. A user interface provides suggestionsabout the order and timing of the feet and their positions. Additional features include automatic generation of footprintswhere the user specifies the path the quadruped is to follow(Figure 12).

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Note I won’t get into how to plot these points in this book. If you are interested in the concept, you can gain a better understanding from math.com at the following address. For now all you really need to know is that 3D software programs like DAZ Studio keep track of all the vertices in a 3D model for you.


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SAEINDIA Collegiate club, ASE Bangalore arranged a Technical talk on “Introduction to Dynamic Power Plant simulation” in E-Learning hall on 11th Sept 2021 between 11:30 am to 12/30 pm. Mr. WILLIAM HAZLIT from Sim Info systems Pvt Ltd, Chennai delivered the talk. Students of 5S ME and few faculty members attended this session.

Copy/Paste At the bottom of the Surface tab are two buttons labeled Copy and Paste. These buttons allow you to copy the surface settings of one 3D object to another.


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Record—Click Record to record your own audio file. Click Stop when you are done recording.

Mathematical modeling: It has been observed that motion gaits of most of the quadruped characters have same symmetrical patterns across both right and left legs. The difference however is that the gait pattern between both right and left legs occurs with different time shifts and phases (Griffin et al, 2004; Marhefka et al, 2003). Thus consequently same motion equation is shared between legs containing varying time shift parameters.


The hands have 16 bones each, three for the thumb and each finger and one for the wrist. Having this many bones in the hands gives the artist complete control over the hand, one of the most expressive parts of the body.

Students prepared the moulds and poured the liquid polymer with accelerator and hardener into the molds and allowed it to solidify for a day. Next day participants removed their cast from the moulds and cleaned the cast using sand paper. The event was judged by Mr. Dileep, Assistant professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering.


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To better see the effect of smoothing, just turn it off. Figure 5/14 shows the pants with smoothing turned off. Figure 5/14 When smoothing is turned off, you can see the flat polygon shapes.

Summary In this chapter, we looked at DAZ Studio’s interface to understand its layout and how it is organized. We also took a closer look at the toolbar tools. These tools help you move about your scene. We also looked at the Scene tab and the Content tab. The Scene tab shows all elements loaded into a scene. The Content tab shows any available elements that can be loaded into a scene. The last item covered in this chapter was loading DAZ 3D elements into a scene. In the next chapter, we will cover cameras and view ports.


First three comes under the classification of heat exchangers wherein each apparatus has its own advantages and limitations. Heat pipe (evacuated) experiment shows high thermal diffusivity when compared to copper and stainless steel pipes due to its design. It is the fastest removing heat exchanger out of existing systems. Shell and Tube and Cross flow heat exchangers are used to find the overall heat transfer rate and its effectiveness.

Figure 10/10 This 3D set is a modern-day rundown city street. Figure 10/12 This view shows the entire environment.


Notice how the set is made specifically for the camera, pointing to the center, as shown in Figure 10/8. The Set only works if viewed from one direction. It is truly like a stage where the audience is in the front. Figure 10/8 A backdrop is designed for viewing from only one direction.

Most of the these examples are extreme to illustrate the different ways that lines, value, detail, color, and action can be used to focus the viewer’s attention on a point in the picture. In practice, the artist should use judgment in the methods used to focus attention. The danger in being too heavy-handed with compositions is that when any technique or method of composition becomes too overbearing, the viewer can feel manipulated. Composition techniques should be used in such a way that they seem natural to the viewer, not contrived.


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It has no moving parts and is designed to give structure to the head and protect the many delicate organs of the head. The jaw is the only movable part of the face, and it is hinged to the skull just below the ears. Because the jaw has a simple hinged motion, its functions are very broad in nature and the only subtleties are those of how far open or closed it is. The majority of facial expressions don’t come from the movement of the jaw but rather movement of the many muscles that cover the skull and head. For example, the muscles around the mouth are very flexible and can control a wide range of expression. Other muscles in the cheek and brow can have a wide range of subtle motion. Models in DAZ Studio are made to mimic how our bodies work. If you look at the Head tab in Power Pose shown in Figure 6/1, you can see that there are only four green animation icons to work with: one for the head, one for the neck, and two for the eyes. The two triangle icons are for moving the eyes in unison. Because of the head’s complexity, fine facial movement is controlled by Morphs rather than bones because Morphs can animate in ways that are similar to the muscles of the head. Working from large motion to small, an animator will generally position the head first and then work on the expression.

As you can see, it handles the different body morphs very well. Even though you may only have one character model and just a few outfits for that character, by using the morphs, you should be able to create an extensive variety of characters.


Also remember that control boxes are simply used to select animation controls for your character and to move the character around. The goal of these controls is that they be immediately accessible and selectable from any view. Sometimes it is difficult, but do whatever you can to make the controls easy to see and select from most angles. This includes making controls somewhat uneven in shape or asymmetrical, as well as color-coding so that if one is right on top of the other, it is still quite intuitive to differentiate between the two control boxes.

Second day witnessed a practical hands-on session of the assembling of the robot. Further the participants were tutored with one soldering of a PCB. The teams soldered their respective PCB’s, constructed their own robots. Mr. Nishanth then expounded the code for the smile, the movement of the robot and the Bluetooth control of the robot. The participants uploaded the code on their respective Arduino boards and verified the movement and the smile using a 3*3 LCD matrix. They examined the Bluetooth control of the robot. Merit certificates were given to the teams with the best swift movement of the BIPED ROBOT.


For this character there was no reference motion capture, so Luma mounted their own MoCap session. For the action martial arts sequences, the company hired stunt performers.

Become a 3D Character Animator

Summary As you can see, there is a lot you can do with faces in DAZ Studio. Not only can you use the existing models to create a wide variety of faces and expressions, but you can also create your own faces by using FaceShop. In this chapter, you learned about using morphs to modify the model’s face. You also learned about creating facial expressions and using preset facial expressions on your model. We also went through a tutorial on using FaceShop to change the 3D model’s head to match a photograph. In the next chapter, we will talk about nonhuman 3D models in DAZ Studio and how to work with them.


The final round consisted of a written test round, where students had to answer few logical questions and model a paper plane. Mr. Ebin Jose, Co secretary of Ingenium announced the winners list and certificates to the participants and merit students were distributed. At the end, session was concluded by D. Lalith Kumar with a formal vote of thanks. The two-day session of exuberance saw an end with a lot of expertise and exhilaration to take along. All the students who participated in the workshop were very happy for being a part of it.

To the right of the Display window is the Video window. You can load video here and use it as reference for frame-by-frame comparisons. To the right of the Display window are the Phoneme and Expressions palettes. Here you can choose from a number of phonemes and expressions to add to your animation. Below the Display window is the Timeline. You will notice that the Timeline in Mimic Pro has several sections. From top to bottom there are Frames, Text, Phonemes Track, Expressions Track A, Expressions Track B, Audio and Gestures Track. The Frames section measures the length of the animation in both time and frames. It also has playback, scrolling, and magnification tools to help make the process of animating easier.


But, the user would still need to handle the Maya part of the process

As a part of SAEINDIA, SAE OFF- HIGHWAY BOARD organized SINE (Student INdustry Education) - 2105 a workshop to aspire women engineers in the field of Off- Highway industry. This two weeks induction program 13-12-2021 to 24-12-2021 on Off- Highway companies was held in Pune, Maharashtra with the support of 9 organizations (John Deere, Ansys, Eaton, Caterpillar, Varroc, Cummins, PTC, ARAI, COEP) along with 25 women engineers, selected across India from 22 different universities.

If you take a quick look at DAZ Studios’ website, you will see that they have some of the latest fashions along with many specialty outfits that range from uniforms to high fantasy. This variety allows an artist to create almost any type of character he can imagine. Clothing for models are 3D and created specifically for each model, which means that clothing created for Victoria will not likely fit Michael and vice versa. It is a little like the clothing you buy at the store. You try your clothing on and buy what fits. In DAZ Studio, the clothing is made to fit a specific model. When shopping for clothing, make sure you buy the right clothing for the right model.


Full 3D Environments The most accurate and believable settings for your character in DAZ Studio is a full 3D environment. A full 3D environment will give you the most accurate three-dimensional rendering because the lighting will be accurate and the distances will be consistent with your models. Full 3D environments give your characters a full range of movement capabilities. You have a lot more freedom for camera angles because you are not limited to only one direction. The down side to full 3D environments is that they take a massive amount of polygons and texture data. They tend to create very complex scenes that often take a long time to render. Figure 10/9 shows a full environment scene. As you can see, this scene is very complex even without characters. Even on a fast machine, this scene took almost two hours to render with shadows. Another important element to remember when dealing with 3D environments is that you will have greater freedom in moving things around and customizing the set up of your scene.

Altogether, the event was a grand success serving as a complete package of plentiful entertainment, technical grooming and developing competitive spirit. At the end of the day, it helped in instilling a sense of confidence and immense pleasure among participants and boosted their interest to go ahead in this fascinating field and achieve bigger milestones of success.


Organized a visit to IMTEX ’17 for III year students under the mentorship of Mr. Prashanth B. N, on 28th January 2021. The exhibitors were from 22 countries and from over 1000 exhibitors. A total of 76 students of S6 from various branches registered for the event. The students were accompanied by Mr. Prashanth B. N. and Mr. Pramod R, faculty members in the mechanical engineering department. The students were exposed to machine tool accessories, metrology and CAD/CAM cutting tools, tooling systems and current trends in the tooling industry. They also came across innovations in technology, design and product development to achieve competitiveness and excellence in the machine tool industry. The expo included various machines ranging from small drill bits to large compacting machine, large number of robotic arms employed in various fields like packing and unpacking, precision cutting, bending operations etc. The students were given a free copy of MMI India, the official magazine of Indian Machine Tool Manufactures’ Association. Overall, it was an educating and a knowledge enhancing opportunity for the students.

Anger One of the most powerful emotions that an artist has to depict in a character is anger, as shown in Figure 7/20. Anger is also one of the easiest emotions for the audience to interpret.


Rajeevlochana G. Chittawadigi was invited to conduct online lectures/sessions on Robotics using RoboAnlayzer for 4/5 hours at SGSITS Indore on Aug 17-18, 2021 and for 3 hours at Bhagalpur College of Engineering (Bihar) on Aug 22, 2021. Both were funded by MHRD TEQIP/NPIU.

A prop is any non-character object that is used by a character and includes things like chairs, cars, umbrellas, and swords. The main difference between a prop and a set is that a prop is something that the character can use. A set is a setting or environment in which the character will be placed. Sets in DAZ Studio can be a simple backdrop similar to those found in a photography studio or they can be a complete 3D model of an environment. In this chapter, I will explain how to import and use props with your characters. I will also go over several different types of sets. To finish the chapter, I will discuss how to create your own sets using another great tool from DAZ Studio called Bryce. This program is specifically designed for the creation of incredible 3D environments.


It can be anything from a symbol to a fully animated character

Students were briefed about the event and the introduction was held in a very interactive manner. First part of the event was exploring a basic machine and explanation about the mechanism.

Figures, Characters and Avatars: The Official Guide to Using DAZ Studio to Create Beautiful Art

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As you can see, the new terrain looks like some rugged snowcapped mountains. These mountains look cool but they are just the start. There are several possibilities for creating mountains.

Execute several short in-class projects practicing a variety of animating techniques and styles

The event was basically meant to introduce the students to the world of internal combustion engine. SAE club student members organized this event. On the first day they covered theoretical explanation of the engines and on the second day they did practical demonstration of the engines. The first day garnered the participation of around eighty students from various disciplines. The second day of practical demonstration received enthralling response of one hundred fifty students who actively participated in the event.


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In the upper-left corner of the viewport, there are several tools that are used to help you work in the scene. They control display modes, camera views, and light views. We will cover these tools later in this chapter. To the right and left of the scene are panes. The left-hand pane contains information about what is in your scene and what is available to put in your scene, as shown in Figure 2/5. There are two tabs at the top of this pane: Content and Scene. The Content tab shows all available content. DAZ has a built- in system for automatically organizing available content to make it easy for you to find your 3D models. The pane on the right has two tabs.

The Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru conducted a world class open day that appealed to a wide audience. The display included demonstrations of bottle rockets, gas propulsion, UAVs, glass blowing, chemiluminescence, reverse brain cycle and nanotechnology. There was also an intelligent water management system and an air show involving quad copters.


Contrast Focus Another excellent way to create a focal point is to use value contrast. Value is the quality of light or dark in a picture. In Figure 3/27, the focal point is the girl’s head. Notice how quickly your eyes are drawn to the focal area. Contrast focus in a picture is more likely to catch the viewer’s eye than any other focus method is. Value is one of the most powerful tools an artist has. To create a focal point using value, the artist places the highest contrast between light and dark at the focal point. All other images in the picture will have less contrast between light and dark.

The textures for the dragon are located in the Studio folder, as shown in Figure 2/18. To apply the texture to the dragon, simply drag the texture you want onto the dragon model, as shown in Figure 2/19. You can also double-click the texture icon with the dragon selected in the viewport to load the texture. If you downloaded the free model packs supplied by DAZ, you should have several models that you can experiment with. Try loading them to see how they look in the scene. Figure 2/18 The dragon’s textures are located inside the Studio directory.


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You will notice that as you move the cursor, a yellow box outline will appear over the different parts of the body that the cursor is covering. If you wait just a bit, a black box will appear describing the body part, as shown in Figure 4/4. To select the body part in the scene, just click on it in the scene.

First we need to break up the picture into shapes. We will start with the leopard lying in the grass. Figure 3/15 shows the leopard’s shape. While the leopard’s shape is complex it basically forms a triangle. The next shape is the second leopard as shown in Figure 3/16. Notice that this shape also forms a triangle. By breaking the two leopards down into their basic shapes it become easier to see how they fit into the composition of the picture. These two shapes are the main subject of the picture and are positive shapes meaning that they overlap the forest shapes below and behind them. For there to be a positive shape there also has to be a negative shape. Negative shapes are the shapes that make up the area around the positive shapes.


Analyze—Click Analyze to apply head and lip movement animation to your recorded audio file. Analyze is used for newly recorded audio.

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Light Area The area that contains the highlight and the raking light is the light area of an object. Most objects can be defined as having a light area and a shadow area. Because the light area receives the most light, most of the detail in a picture is in this area.


Students were taught how to construct a QuadCopter and the principles behind the construction. A written exam was given to the participants based on quad-copter and its applications.

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Installing the Software There is a version of the latest DAZ Studio on the DVD that comes with this book. It was the latest version available at the time of this book’s publishing; however, the program is updated regularly so I recommend that you take a look at their site, to see if there is a new version available. To install the version on the DVD, insert it in your computer’s DVD drive and, when prompted, click Install DAZ Studio. Installation is easy and all you will need to do is follow the onscreen directions. If you happen to have an older version of DAZ Studio on your system, the installation program will ask if you want to remove it. The older version has to be removed before you can install the new version, so click Yes. Once the program is installed, take the time to read the readme file. It will help you with any new issues with the software that you might need to know. When you are ready to begin, start the program.

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Edit Mode In Edit mode you can place pose points or key frames in the Puppeteer grid. Figure 11/14 shows DAZ Studio with a pose point set in Puppeteer. To set a pose, just pose your character and then with the character selected, click on any location on the grid. A gray dot will appear on the grid where you clicked. This dot is a pose location on the grid and stores the pose data from your character. In Figure 11/15 I have set a second pose for Sadie.


Constraining the joints helps to prevent unnatural poses that go beyond how the body can normally move. Constraints are set by the artist who created the model. Some models will have very limiting constraints while other may be looser. For example, compare how much farther Victoria can move up her leg to Sadie’s leg movement constraint in Figure 11/5.

Then once in Maya you should be able to hide the faces of the mesh where the toes are poking through the shoes

Sam: Erik, the creative director and I had talked a few years back and I completed an animation test for him. When I became available early this year it was a great to be able to jump onboard almost straight away.


The key advantage of using procedural animation is that motion is generated instantaneously and efficiently

Inspiring the impending engineers to ideate and innovate for an enhanced future, INGENIUM, the departmental forum of mechanical engineering, in collaboration with AerotriX conducted a workshop on RC AIRCRAFT, on 17th and 18th February 2021. The two-day workshop where tech congregates fun turned out to be a mind-boggling and stupefying event of the year. Mr. Lalithkumar D, secretary of Ingenium hosted the event. A total of 10 teams (50 students) participated in the workshop.

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A new set of tools will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. These tools can be used to further enhance the model and make it look more like the photo. In Figure 6/24, I have mirrored the head’s right side to the left. While not always necessary, mirroring can help to make the head more symmetrical. Figure 6/24 Mirroring one side of the face to the other helps make the head more symmetrical.


We will get into how to use Lip Sync a little later. For now let’s talk about animating a talking character in general.

Organized by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Delhi on March 3, 2021

I don't like to brag, but I think my attack animations are pretty amazing. I noticed when I started that a lot of the early attacks were animated as if they hit something. This too me looked like they where using a squeaky hammer. So I've been giving attacks a full swing, which gives them a lot more power and makes more sense should the attack miss.


The following students of SAEINDIA collegiate club attended the 'Virtual Baja 2021' ,representing 'Amrita School Of Engineering' ,which was organized by SAE India on the 1st and 2nd August at the Gujarat Technical University, Ahmedabad. Mr. Vinod Kotebavi guided the team as a faculty advisor. The Team consisted of 25 students.

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Magnetize Pose automatically adjusts the clothing to match any morphs used in the character, if the clothing has a morph that corresponds to the same morph on the character. For example, Figure 5/6 shows the Figure 5/6 The clothing is conforming to the shape of the character.

Under the General tab, shown in Figure 9/7, leave Scene Options as Y Up unless specifically stated otherwise in your requirements. Figure 9/7 The General Tab has many important options.